卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Types of Evidence

Effects of a language-based reading intervention

A quasi-experimental field trial conducted by Proctor and colleagues, which was published in Reading Research Quarterly, examined the effects of a language-based reading intervention, called CLAVES, among bilingual students in Grades 4 and 5. The framework of CLAVES consisted of language components, language functions, discussion, and reading comprehension, which integrated ELA and social studies into three thematic units. Each unit had three instructional cycles, focusing on text-based language and comprehension (Cycle 1 & 2) and writing (Cycle 3). 239 bilingual students (Portuguese-English and Spanish-English) from 8 schools in the Northeast and the Mid-Atlantic regions of the US were assigned to the intervention group (n=119) and the control group (n=120). The participating teachers (n=22) were responsible for both intervention and control group instruction. Results showed significant positive effects of the intervention on both reading comprehension (ES=+0.17) and academic language (ES=+0.25). No moderation effects were found by pre-intervention language proficiency on the outcomes.  ...

10 03 2021
PHAST, a program for adolescent struggling readers

The PHAST Reading Program is designed to support struggling readers in middle school. The program combines instruction in phonological skills and strategies to build word identification accuracy. It also incorporates motivational practices due to the low motivation associated with struggling readers. A recent study by Canadian and American researchers evaluated the effects of PHAST Reading on two groups: one addressing comprehension and one addressing fluency. The study was conducted in the US and Canada, and randomly assigned 514 struggling readers in grades 6, 7 and 8 to the PHAST Reading Comprehension (n = 217), PHAST Reading Fluency (n = 216) or the control group (n = 81). The interventions were delivered in pull-out sessions in student groups of 4 to 8. After almost one year of intervention, results comparing PHAST Reading (the two groups together) to the control group showed that: There were larger effects for foundational reading skills than for reading...

10 03 2021
Unexpected SEL benefits from Breakfast in the Classroom program

Social and motivational outcomes, Programme evaluation Breakfast In The Classroom (BIC) is a program in which all children receive breakfast in their homerooms while teachers take attendance, check homework, and prepare for the day. In a post by Child Trends’ Brandon Stratford and Michael Bradley, the authors described a study they did regarding the successes and challenges of implementing the Breakfast In The Classroom program, where they found an important and unexpected finding: BIC provided opportunities for students to develop their social-emotional learning skills. In the spring of 2018, Child Trends administered a survey that was completed by 368 individuals working in school districts in Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Texas. The survey covered topics ranging from respondents’ attitudes before starting BIC to the barriers and successes they experienced. Child Trends also conducted site visits in the spring and fall of 2018 in three school districts, visiting six schools altogether, and carrying out in-depth...

24 02 2021
The importance of hope to Chinese primary schools students

Previous research indicated that hope is a psychological strength that could help one to overcome obstacles. Recently, a research published on Learning and Individual Differences investigated that relationship between hope and academic achievement among a sample of Chinese primary school students. The study was conducted in a city in Southern China, with 949 students from third to fifth grades participated. Students participated in the study completed a questionnaire and was assessed of their academic performance for three consecutive semesters. The questionnaire was conducted in the middle of each semester, assessing students’ level of hope and behavioural engagement. Academic performance was measured by a single index based on students’ performance in the final exam for Chinese, English and Mathematics during the end of semesters.  The results showed that: The relationship between hope and academic achievement among Chinese primary school students was reciprocal. Students’ hope can predict later achievement, while achievement also...

24 02 2021
Can a classroom management program improve students’ social behaviors and academic achievement?

Achievement, Programme evaluation In an article published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Keith Herman and colleagues examined the effectiveness of the classroom management program CHAMPS on students’ social behaviors and academic achievement. CHAMPS is a teacher training program that focuses on six dimensions: Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, and Signal. The program provides teachers with training and coaching to support them in creating an effective classroom management plan. During the training, teachers learn how to promote responsible behaviors among their students and to preplan brief and calm ways to respond to misbehaviors. This study involved 101 sixth- to eighth- grade teachers and their 1,243 students in the Midwest. Teachers were randomly assigned to use CHAMPS in their classes for one school year (n=50) or to the control condition (n=51). Social behaviors were assessed using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist and academic achievement was assessed through the administration of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)...

24 02 2021
INSIGHTS into academic achievement

Social-emotional learning (SEL), such as the ability to set goals and manage frustration, have been positively associated with academic outcomes. These findings have encouraged policymakers to implement programs that help students build up their SEL competencies. However, the jury is still out on how well these programs impact academic outcomes. For example, Duncan and colleagues (2007) examined multiple large-scale national datasets and failed to find any significant associations between early SEL skills and math or reading skills in third grade. Furthermore, there are relatively few studies of the long-term impact of SEL interventions on students’ outcomes. To address these two gaps in the literature, Meghan McCormick and colleagues looked into the long-term impact of the social-emotional learning (SEL) program, INSIGHTS. INSIGHTS facilitators use temperament as a lens to teach parents and teachers how to best respond to student behavior, as well as deliver empathy and problem-solving curricula to students. Students' baseline scores were...

24 02 2021
Do academic performance related to mobile phone use?

Mobile phone use has become more common even among students. Would using mobile phone have any implication to students’ achievement? Recently, Liu and colleagues investigated the relationship between prolonged mobile phone use and academic performance among adolescents in China. The study was based on a sample from Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort conducted in 2015. The survey examined students’ weekday and weekend mobile phone use, sleep duration, insomnia, depression, and self-reported achievement. Among the sample of 11,831 students, the researchers were able to obtain the year end achievement tests score for Chinese, Mathematics, and English of 856 students following the baseline survey for the analysis. The results were as follows: Students achievement significantly decreased should their prolonged mobile phone use was more than 1 hour on weekday and 2 hours or more on weekend. After controlling for their backgrounds, students who used mobile phone more than two hours during...

10 02 2021
High-risk students gain the most from an argument-based approach to elementary science teaching

University of Iowa’s Brian Hand and colleagues conducted a two-year study evaluating the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on 3rd to 5th grade students’ critical thinking and science learning in the classroom. 48 elementary schools in Iowa participated in the implementation of a science program utilizing an SWH approach (n=9,963 students, 24E, 24C) embedded in a student-centered pedagogy of dialogue and critical thinking processes reflective of the real-life practices of scientists. Teachers in the experimental group participated in professional development that immersed teachers in argument-based inquiry activities to help learn science content, emphasizing the essential use of language in science. The Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) was used to assess students’ knowledge of scientific principles pre- and post-treatment. Additionally, all 5th grade students (n=2,353) were evaluated for changes in critical thinking skills using the Cornell Critical Thinking test (CCT). Researchers found that: While the intervention had no statistically significant effect on...

10 02 2021
Do the effects of high-quality PreK persist?

A team of scholars evaluated the effects of a high-quality PreK learning environment on subsequent years of schooling. The study included the second cohort of children who entered PreK in the 2010-2011 school year in the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program, a well-known randomized experiment on PreK effectiveness, which found initial positive effects of PreK attendance, fading out over time. The final sample of the current study, after excluding 434 children with missing data, was composed of 806 students, including 491 PreK participants, and 315 non-participants. The results showed that: Neither attending high-quality schools, nor being taught by high-quality teachers, solely demonstrated significant evidence for the persistence of positive PreK effects through 3rd grade. However, when children were exposed to both high-quality schools and high-quality teachers, children who participated in PreK programs showed significantly greater achievement in ELA (b = .15, SE = .07, p < .05) and math (b = .17, SE...

10 02 2021