卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Types of Evidence

Research suggests link between well-being and achievement

Researchers from Queen’s University in Belfast have explored the relationship between well-being and academic achievement scores among primary school children, and found it to be statistically significant. These findings were based on data on academic achievement and a range of well-being indicators gathered through a cross-sectional survey of 1,081 students aged 7-11 in Northern Ireland. The team used six of the most common measures of well-being, covering psychological factors, school engagement factors, and family and peer relationship factors. The authors found that The positive relationship between well-being and achievement was the same for all children, regardless of their gender or socio-economic background. For Year 7 students who have high levels of wellbeing (a standard deviation above the sample mean), the predicted probability of achieving the expected national standard in English and Mathematics was 9.4 percentage point higher than those of low levels of wellbeing (a standard deviation below the sample mean). Neither...

08 10 2019
What makes children stressed?

A research report from the Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre in the UK looks at family “stressors” and the impact on children’s outcomes. The authors look at whether particular life events are especially detrimental, whether they have an impact across different outcomes (educational, social, etc.), and whether the effects of early childhood events persist into adolescence. They also look at the association between family factors and outcomes. The findings of the report are broad, especially as different family factors can be associated with different types of outcomes. Key findings include that Extreme stressful events, such as homelessness, victimization, or abuse, can have long-term effects on children’s outcomes. Some stressful events have an impact on children’s emotional and social well-being but not their educational outcomes, and so their negative impacts may therefore be harder to pick up. The authors point out that in order to target interventions, it is important to understand which...

08 10 2019
Research on writing approaches for students in grades 2 to 12

This paper, written by Robert Slavin and colleagues from Johns Hopkins University, the University of Liege, and the Institute for Effective Education, reviews research on the outcomes of writing program for students in grades 2 to 12. Studies had to meet rigorous standards of research including use of randomized or well-matched control groups; measures independent of the program developers, researchers, and teachers; and adequate sample size and duration. Fourteen studies of 12 programs met the criteria and programs were divided into three categories: writing process models, cooperative learning writing programs, and programs integrating reading and writing. The findings were: Student achievement effects on writing were positive in all categories, with an effect size of +0.18 across all 14 studies. Similar outcomes were found for writing programs that focused on the writing process (ES =+0.17), those using cooperative learning (ES=+0.16), and those focusing on interactions between reading and writing (ES =+0.19)...

24 09 2019
Reassessing concerns about school may help improve academic achievement

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences looks at what impact an intervention designed to help students with concerns about starting middle school has on their academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. Geoffrey D. Borman and colleagues conducted the study with 1,304 sixth graders at 11 middle schools in a U.S. Midwestern public school district. Within each of the 11 schools, students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention group was given reflective writing exercises, two months apart, which were designed to help students reassess any concerns and worries they might have about belonging in school. The control condition exercises asked students to write about neutral middle school experiences that were not related to school belonging. The researchers collected pre- and post-intervention survey data on students' reported social and emotional well-being, and official school records of student attendance, disciplinary records, and grades. The results of the...

24 09 2019
Family and Progress in Mathematics

Using a large sample from a longitudinal national Chinese survey, an article recently published in Learning and Instruction investigated how socioeconomic status (SES) and the academic expectation of the primary caregivers predicted students’ attainment in mathematics. The study used data from China Family Panel Studies, a longitudinal survey launched in 2010 and conducted every two years in 162 counties in China. In total, 1,407 adolescents were examined with data collected in 2010, 2012, and 2014, years in which the cohort grew from aged 10-15 to aged 14-19. In these years, students took three mathematics tests, the results of which were analyzed with their SES at the baseline and their primary caregivers’ academic expectations. It was found that: Both SES and primary caregivers’ academic expectation exerted positive effects on the mathematics attainment of the students in the study. Higher academic expectation from primary caregivers at ages 10-15 supported students to make...

24 09 2019
Growing up digital

A report published by the Nuffield Foundation in the UK finds that computer use in schools does not on its own boost students' digital literacy or prepare them for the workplace. The report, written by Angela McFarlane, examines how digital technologies are used in schools to enhance learning, and identifies research questions to inform better practice and policy. It examines ten years of existing evidence on the effect the use of digital technology has on learning, and finds that: Putting computers into schools is no guarantee that there will be a positive impact on learning outcomes as measured in high-stakes assessments or on the development of digital literacy. How digital technologies are used is as important as whether they are used. There is no shared picture of what effective digital skills teaching looks like. Teachers may not have opportunities to develop the skills they need to make effective use of technology. The current...

24 09 2019
Printed vs digital text: A meta-analysis

A recent meta-analysis in The Journal of Research on Reading has synthesized the findings of studies comparing print and digital text regarding time required to read, reading comprehension, and readers' perceptions of their comprehension. Researcher Virginia Clinton performed a systematic literature review, only including studies using random assignment and that were published between 2008 and 2018, yielding 29 reports of 33 studies for analysis. She found that: Readers require equal amounts of time to read print and digital text, although screen reading negatively impacted reading comprehension (ES= -0.25). Readers were more accurately able to judge their comprehension on paper (ES= +0.20) than on screen. The negative effect on performance for reading text from screens rather than paper did not vary for readers who were adults or children (under 18). However, the author suggests this finding should be interpreted with caution because there were more studies with adult participants (26) than child...

11 09 2019
Results of a large randomized controlled trial of growth mindset

A randomized controlled trial published in the journal Nature has found that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention may improve achievement among lower-achieving students and increase overall enrollment in advanced math courses. The study, conducted by David S. Yeager and colleagues, was the largest ever randomized controlled trial of growth mindset in U.S. schools, with 12,000 ninth graders in 65 schools involved. Students were individually randomized to either a control or intervention group. The intervention group was asked to complete two 25-minute online courses, taken three weeks apart. Students were given information about how the brain works and the latest research on growth mindset, then they completed activities such as explaining what they had learned from the course to students in the year below. Students in the control group were given a similar program with information on how the brain worked, but no information on growth mindset. Following the intervention, students' grade point average (GPA)...

11 09 2019
Effects of Positive Emotion Interventions on Chinese Adolescents

In recent years, interventions that apply positive psychology principles have become increasingly popular, providing an alternative approach to promoting students’ well-being. A recent research published in Frontiers in Psychology examined a positive education program in China focusing on positive emotion for middle school students” Participants were drawn from a public middle school in the city of Chengdu, China. A total of 173 eighth graders from six classes participated in this study, of which 84 were randomly allocated to the experiment group, and 89 were assigned in the control group. Students in the experiment group received a 10-session positive education program delivered by their head-teachers who received training in positive psychology from the researchers. The program consisted of three main modules, namely understanding emotions, fostering positive emotions and managing negative emotions. Each session lasted 45 minutes. Students in the control group spent the same time taking a moral education class that...

11 09 2019