卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Maths and Science Learning

Cardinal number knowledge and finger counting

A recent pretest-training-posttest study of three-year-old numerical development by Orrantia and colleagues provides insight on the role of finger patterns in the acquisition of cardinality. The study consisted of 51 children randomly assigned to one of two separate classrooms, each with a similarly qualified teacher. The instructional technique practiced in the first classroom consisted of the teacher first labeling a set’s quantity on flashcard for the class, then having the class count the set aloud while the teacher pointed to each item, and finally having the children point to their own cards, count, and label. The authors identified this as the label-count-label (LCL) condition and effectively used this classroom as the control group. The technique in the second classroom followed the same pattern, but each step was supplemented with the teacher and students holding up the corresponding number of fingers for each quantity, which the authors identified as the LCL-plus-finger...

23 09 2022
Evaluation of an online computer programming training approach with precision feedback

Due to the rapid development of information technology, acquiring programming knowledge is growing in prominence, and computation thinking becomes a fundamental skill for children just like reading and math. Using the Two-Tier Test-Based Programming Training (T3PT) approach, Hwang and Tung developed an online learning system for beginners and conducted a quasi-experiment to examine the effect of the system on secondary school students’ computer programming learning. The Two-Tier Test-Based Programming Training (T3PT) consists of two tiers of questions: The first tier assesses students’ understanding of the programming concept The second tier investigates the reasons for students’ choice in the first tier test to detect whether students have misconceptions about the programming. The learning system then, based on students’ responses, provides timely precise feedback to students to enhance their understanding of the correct concepts of programming logic. Two classes of 99 eighth grade students (mean age = 14.2) from Taiwan were divided...

23 09 2022
The best of two worlds: A systematic review on combining real and virtual experiments in science education

A recent study published in the Review of Educational Research examined the relative effectiveness of combining real and virtual experiments versus a single type of experimentation, and which sequence of real and virtual experiments was most effective for the acquisition of scientific literacy. In contrast to previous reviews focusing on a comparison of real experiments (RE, hands-on with actual materials) versus virtual experiments (VE, interactive computer simulation), in this review the authors focused on the effects of combining RE and VE. The results were based on a sample of 42 studies meeting the inclusion criteria set. In relation to the relative effectiveness of combining real and virtual experiments compared with a single type of experimentation, the results showed that: Twenty-five of the 30 studies reported a significant advantage of the experimental groups that used RE and VE in combination, compared to control groups that used only one single experiment type...

23 09 2022
Mathematics summer learning

A recent meta-analysis by Lynch and colleagues provides fresh insight on contemporary research focused on the effects of summer programs for mathematics. The authors noted that studies cited in previous meta-analyses of the effects of summer programs on mathematics achievement are now approximately 20 years old, and thus a new meta-analysis on the topic was warranted. The authors used data from 37 studies to analyze the effects of summer programs on mathematics achievement, the characteristics of summer programs which moderate their effectiveness, and the relationship between summer learning programs and noncognitive outcomes. The primary finding of the meta-analysis was shown below. Summer programs demonstrated an overall positive effect (ES = +0.10) on all mathematics outcomes A positive effect (ES = +0.10) also found on standardized mathematics test scores. For context, this is equivalent to approximately a 4 percentile point difference on a standardized test. Delving more into the details of...

09 09 2022
Doubling down to improve school climate

A recent study by Grant and colleagues evaluated the effect of implementing Restorative Practices and Diplomas Now on school climate and teachers’ intentions to leave their school. Restorative Practices refers to a schoolwide shift away from punitive disciplinary methods and toward open dialogue that allows students to make amends by processing how their behavior affects others. Diplomas Now, another schoolwide reform model, focuses on building collaborative teacher teams, providing professional development, using early warning systems to provide students with tiered supports, and incorporating all supports by providing additional human resources to accomplish the work. It was hypothesized that when implemented together, the interventions would have a positive effect on school climate by improving student-teacher relationships, providing students with relevant and engaging learning opportunities, and increasing teacher retention. The analytic sample for the study included 25 schools from large urban school districts that were randomly assigned to either implement both interventions...

26 08 2022
Comparing mathematical games

In a recent meta-analysis, Gulsah Kacmaz and Adam K. Dubé analyzed the findings from 26 studies on mathematical games to better understand the types of pedagogical approaches supported in mathematical games, the types of mathematical knowledge emphasized in these games, and the overall effectiveness of different varieties of games. The authors suggest the improvement of mathematical games may bolster performance in math while appealing to the interests of students. However, the abundance of choices and inability to separate effective and ineffective mathematical games has limited their utility. The most common pedagogical approach in the studies reviewed was direct instruction (n = 10), followed by experiential learning (n = 7), discovery learning (n = 3), and constructivist learning (n = 3), leaving 3 studies unclassified. The strongest effects were noted for direct instruction (g = 0.51), followed by experiential learning (g = 0.46), discovery learning (g = 0.24), and constructivist learning...

30 06 2022
Is inquiry-based instruction effective? Evidence from 6 countries

Many researchers and educators advocate for inquiry-based learning and argue that inquiry-based activities can boost students’ learning and develop students’ problem-solving skills. However, little research has compared the effects of inquiry-based instruction with traditional teacher-directed instruction on a large scale. Using data from PISA 2015 – an international comparative student assessment — Oliver and colleagues explored the association between students’ science performance and three types of instruction in science classrooms: inquiry-based, teacher-directed, and adaptive instruction. The sample includes 15-year-old students (N = 64,718) in 6 countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, UK, Ireland, and the USA. After controlling for student socioeconomic status in the multivariate regression analysis, the authors found that, common to all 6 countries, students’ scientific literacy was negatively associated with inquiry-based instruction, so that increases in inquiry-based instruction were associated with lower scores. Teacher-directed and adaptive teaching were both positively correlated with students’ science achievement. Additionally, the authors...

30 06 2022
What works for students with mathematics difficulties?

A recent meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for elementary students with math difficulties. To be included in the review, studies had to use randomized or quasi-experimental designs and evaluate word-problem solving interventions. A total of 52 studies were included in the review. Overall, results showed a significant positive effect for mathematics outcomes (ES = +1.01), with a high variability suggesting the presence of factors influencing the effect. By analyzing these factors, the results showed a larger effect when the students involved had only math difficulties (ES = +1.04) compared to both math and reading difficulties (ES = +0.66). When the intervention was delivered in large groups (more than 8 students), the effect was larger than for one-to-one or small-groups (ES = +1.41, +0.86, respectively). Intensive interventions (3 to 5 times a week) were more effective than interventions implemented one or two times weekly (ES = +1.15, +0.76, respectively). A...

14 06 2022
Virtual reality and science learning: Two experiments

Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of an immersive virtual reality (IVR) simulation method compared with a video for teaching and learning scientific knowledge by conducting 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 131 students were randomly divided into an IVR condition (n = 64) and a video condition (n = 67) to learn forensic analysis of a DNA sample. Researchers used a prequestionnaire to check students’ prior knowledge and demographic characteristics, and a postquestionnaire to investigate students’ perceived enjoyment, presence, declarative knowledge, and procedural knowledge. In Experiment 2, 165 students replicated the experiment but were randomly assigned to 4 conditions, IVR (n = 42), IVR with enactment (n = 41), video (n = 39), and video with enactment (n = 43), to investigate whether enactment can enhance students’ learning achievements as well as the knowledge transfer process. According to the results of both experiments, students from the IVR groups felt significantly more presence...

14 06 2022