卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

Getting children ready for school: whole-child or skill-targeted?

Education children receive in their early childhood has been shown to have long-term impacts on their achievements in school, career and even physical health at the later stage of life. Jenkins and her team explored how the design of preschool curricula (including the content and style of instruction) would influence children’s school readiness – measured by their skills in literacy, math, and socioemotional domain at the end of preschool. By evaluating 11 early childhood education curricula funded by the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER) Initiative Study, the team was particularly interested in comparing the effectiveness of the whole-child approach, which is widely adopted in most preschool classrooms in the United States, with the skill-targeted curricula in preparing children for promotion to elementary school education. Whole-child approach: With an emphasis on child-centered active learning, the approach encourages children to interact independently with the equipment, materials, and their peers during learning rather...

19 05 2022
Early childhood education’s positive effects on high school outcome

Early childhood education is associated with positive high school outcomes, including achievement and engagement. In a recently published article in Child Development, Amadon and colleagues reported on a longitudinal study of the effects of early childhood education on high school performance. The study tracked 4033 students enrolled in Tulsa Public Schools (TPS) kindergartens in Oklahoma from 2006 to 2007. Among them, 44% attended the public universal pre-K program, 14% attended Tulsa’s Community Action Project (CAP) Head Start program, and the rest did not attend either program. The study tracked students’ attendance, academic skills, course selection and completion, and grade retention. The results show that students who attended the TPS pre-K program missed 1.5 fewer days (d = −.10) and were less likely to be chronically absent or retained in grade. And students who attended Head Start missed three fewer days than the other two groups (p = .053) but with...

19 05 2022
The effects of early college opportunities on English learners

A recent study in the American Educational Research Journal examined a developing program started in 2017 that offers Early College (EC) opportunities in high schools serving large English learner (EL) populations in California. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an EC program on high school graduation and subsequent college enrollment for EL students. Data for this study were collected from seven cohorts of high school students (N = 15,090) in a large, urban school district in California. As EC was rolled out in the district in three of the high schools first, the researchers compared the post-EC outcomes of treated and control groups (i.e., the three high schools that started EC first vs. other high schools in the district who had not yet started EC). This study expands current knowledge of EC effects on historically underserved student populations such as ELs. Findings from this study showed that although...

19 05 2022
Does a preschool intervention work?

In 2003 and 2004, a team of researchers implemented a year-long social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention with 192 children within 22 classrooms within 12 Head Start programs. This intervention, called Head Start REDI, was an integration of PATHS, which is a well-known SEL intervention, and a daily interactive reading program using books aligned with PATHS’ social and emotional themes. Teachers in the intervention group received a four-day training and weekly mentoring. An additional 164 children within 22 classrooms within 13 Head Start programs served as a control group. Karen Bierman and her team followed these children after 8 to 10 years to estimate the long-term effects of the intervention. Among the original 356 children, 281 children (81%) were reassessed in this study. Children who were 4 years old at the time of intervention were in grades 7 and 9 when they were assessed again. The researchers found that children...

02 05 2022
Do home visits help? Impacts of home visits in the District of Columbia Public Schools

Parent engagement plays an important role in student outcomes. Prior research shows that higher parent engagement is associated with better student outcomes such as higher attendance rates. Recent years have witnessed a growing number of programs intended to improve parent engagement. Yet, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of these programs. A recent study by the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic examined the impacts of home visits conducted by trained teachers on the outcomes of students in grades 1-5 (N = 3,996) in the District of Columbia Public Schools. Teachers and families could choose to participate or not in the home visits. Teachers received a 2-3 hour training, at which time they could begin home visits with families. Home visits took place either over the summer or during the school year. The visits typically last for 30 minutes, during which teachers and parents discuss parents’ expectations for their child’s education...

02 05 2022
Are only-children always better in academic performance?

In the aftermath of the one-child policy in China (1979-2016) having been implemented over 30 years, some researchers found that only-children performed better academically. While most of these studies focused on only-children in urban China, Shi and colleagues conducted a study to investigate the sibling effect on rural children’s academic outcomes. Conversely to an urban area, families in rural China tend to have more children than their urban counterparts. Moreover, along with the national one-child policy, the “One-Son-Two-Kids” rule allowed rural couples to have a second child if the first one was a girl, due to cultural preference to have a son in the family. Families with one child only, therefore, were not common in rural areas. The study was conducted in 2018. After a recruiting process, 156 grade 9 only-children from 102 classes were identified. For each only-child, one peer with sibling(s) was randomly selected from the same class....

25 03 2022
Understanding the dynamics of dosage response on reading interventions

A recent meta-analysis published in the Review of Educational Research intends to identify and understand the intervention characteristics associated with the largest reading effect sizes. To support students’ reading outcomes, current models of intervention delivery have utilized multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS), also referred to as Response to Intervention (RtI). Within current MTSS and RtI frameworks, intervention levels are organized around three tiers. Tier 1 consists of delivering general education classroom instruction. Tier 2 consists of small group or 1:1 tutoring. Tier 3 consists of 1:1 instruction, with higher dosage and personalization. However, despite the promise of early reading interventions, about 18% to 55% of K–3 students with reading disabilities (SWRD) under Tier 2 intervention have continued to struggle in reading. Therefore, it remains critical to better understand how and when to intensify reading interventions. Since linear models in intervention research and meta-analyses have been unable to substantiate the claim...

25 03 2022
Effectiveness of volunteer tutoring

Markovitz and colleagues recently reported on a replication and expansion of a previous randomized controlled trial focused on volunteer tutoring in reading for at-risk early elementary school students. The study focuses on the effectiveness of the Minnesota Reading Corps and the Wisconsin Reading Corps, which are both programs within AmeriCorps. The initial 2014 study focused solely on Minnesota and was limited in its ability to assess impacts for second and third grade students. The authors suggest the study is useful because aspects of the tutoring programs have changed, they are now evaluating the effects of tutoring in two separate programs, and they are now able to have a longer evaluation of the effects on second and third grade students. The study used a matched-pairs design in which students were matched based upon their baseline fall test scores, and then one student was assigned to the control group while the other...

25 03 2022
Does one more year in kindergarten matter?

In 2009, the China Development Research Foundation of the State Council launched the One Village One Preschool (OVOP) initiative which aims to guarantee free early childhood education (ECE) access to all young children in China. According to statistics in 2017, almost all children (98%) in urban areas have access to ECE while only 30% of children from poor and rural areas have the access. OVOP is a variously sourced funded program that encompasses facilities, teaching components, and policy and organizational operations, through which children of a village can access preschool education without spending hours of commuting time.  Using students’ data during the years 2015 to 2018 from Songtao county in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, Chen and colleagues explored the effect of an ECE education experience on academic performance in grade 1 to grade 4.  Five types of ECE education experiences were compared: Township public ECE centres:...

11 03 2022