卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

The Cost-Benefit Case for Tutoring

Individual preK-12 tutoring experiments, varying widely in context, approach, and cost, have shown the positive impact of tutoring and small-group programs. However, a recent meta-analysis sought to summarize the findings of experimental studies since 1980. The study is the first systematic review or meta-analysis of experimental research on preK-12 tutoring interventions of all types. The authors defined tutoring as one-to-one or small-group human instruction aimed at supplementing rather than replacing classroom-based education. No correlational or quasi-experimental studies were included in this review. Through the search and screening process, 96 studies were included. The authors found that: Tutoring programs yield substantial positive impacts on learning outcomes, with an overall pooled effect size estimate of +0.37. Furthermore, effects are stronger on average for teacher and paraprofessional tutoring programs as opposed to nonprofessional and parent tutoring. Effects also tend to be strongest among the earlier grades. The main takeaways from this review are nothing new....

07 10 2020
Low-achieving students in China benefited more in a specialized teacher incentive program

A study recently published in Economics of Education Review examined how a teacher incentive program improved the math performance of students in rural China. The authors suggested that since teachers in rural China are evaluated by students’ high school entrance exam scores and the rate of matriculation into academic high schools, they might tend to focus on mid- and high-performing students and neglect the low-achieving students. With a view to overcoming this, the study examined the effectiveness of a modified pay-for-percentile incentive program that granted teachers 60% more pay incentives for improvements in the outcomes of low-achieving students. The study conducted a clustered randomized control trial using 1,825 fifth-grade students from 52 schools which implemented the program, and another 1,964 fifth-grade students from 51 control schools which did not implement the program. Students’ math performances were accessed by standardized tests before and after the one-year program. The results were as...

22 09 2020
Representational pictures or decorative pictures for testing students

A recent study investigated the cognitive and affective-motivational effects of adding a representational picture (RP) or a decorative picture (DP) to text-based science and mathematics tests. 404 fifth and sixth grade students participated in the computer-based test administration divided into three multimedia conditions – text-only, RP, or DP – and in two test domains –mathematics or science. Each item of the test had a short text, a separate question, and four answer options, plus a picture in RP and DP conditions. RPs were gray pictures and illustrated important information to build a mental representation of the item situation. DPs were colorful, attractive pictures broadly related to the item content. The results showed that: Results on students’ solution success showed a significant positive effect for RP items compared to text-only items in science (ES = +0.25), while no significant effects were found for DP items compared to text-only items (ES = +0.02)....

22 09 2020
Chinese students’ academic performance and parenting styles

Family is influential on students' learning in many ways. Recently, Yang and Zhao (2020) examined parenting practices' impacts on children's academic performance using a large sample of middle school students in China. The analysis was conducted using data from the China Education Panel Survey 2015, which was a nationally representative survey in China. The study sampled 9,920 students from 112 middle schools in China. The survey included questionnaires for the students, their parents, teachers, and the school. Moreover, students' academic achievement was measured by their exam scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics provided by their respective school administration offices. The analysis examined the relationships between academic performance and parenting styles. The findings were as follows: The most dominant parenting styles of Chinese parents were authoritarian and neglectful. Authoritarian parenting style was conducive to academic performance. The effects of parenting styles were more salient among children from a disadvantaged background and...

12 08 2020
Virtual charter schools’ consistent and persistent negative impacts

As COVID-19 pushes more schools online, the call for evidence of online learning is at a premium. Virtual charter schools are one recent innovation claiming to utilize technology for more individualized and flexible learning. However, a recent article published in Educational Researcher from Fitzpatrick and colleagues used a robust quasi-experimental approach to confirm prior negative effects of the virtual charter model as a whole. Fitzpatrick and colleagues looked at state-wide end-of-year test results from Indiana in grades 3-8, including data from students in four virtual charter schools and 67 in-person (“bricks and mortar”) charter schools. The researchers set up a comparison group by matching students who transferred into a virtual charter school to a similar student in a traditional public school. They also looked at how virtual students compared to students who transferred into the more typical, in-person charter school. Results show that: Virtual charters schools negatively affected student achievement. This effect grew...

15 07 2020
Are prematurely born children at higher risk of lower academic performance?

Published in the open access journal JAMA Network Open, this systematic review and meta-analysis considers the associations between premature birth and academic achievement in reading and math. Melinda McBryde and colleagues looked at 33 unique studies comparing the academic outcomes of school-age children who were born prematurely (n=4,006) with children born full-term (n=3,317). The meta-analysis compared mean scores from standardized tests of reading and math (and associated subskills). The results showed that Children who were born prematurely scored lower on reading comprehension and applied mathematical problems than their full-term peers. Premature children also scored lower than their term-born peers in math calculation, decoding, mathematical knowledge, word identification, and mathematical fluency. Extremely premature children (those born at less than 28 weeks’ gestation) had significantly lower reading performance compared with children born full-term. However, children born at 28 to 32 weeks’ gestation did not exhibit later reading deficits compared with full-term peers. Looking at the...

17 06 2020
The relationship between well-being and achievement among Chinese elementary school students

The importance of promoting well-being in schools has been increasingly emphasized. A recent longitudinal study published in School Psychology investigated the relationships between academic achievement, self-esteem, and subjective well-being across time among elementary school students in China. Participating students, who were from Grades 3, 4, and 5, were randomly selected from classes in two elementary schools in a city in Southern China. The study assessed students’ academic achievement, self-esteem, and subjective well-being three times, at intervals of six months.  A cohort of 807 students participated in the first assessment, 790 in the second and 792 in the third. The findings showed that: Academic achievement positively predicted later subjective well-being in school. In particular, the study identified that elementary school students with better academic achievement reported a higher level of self-esteem, which later contributed to a higher level of subjective well-being in schools. However, unexpectedly, neither well-being nor self-esteem could predict...

02 06 2020
A meta-analysis of writing in social studies, science, and math

Is writing about classroom content an effective way to learn? Arizona State University's Steven Graham and colleagues at the University of Utah recently performed a meta-analysis on the effects of writing about classroom content in social studies, science, and math. Specifically, they examined if writing increased student achievement, if the results differed among subjects, and if any relationships existed by grade level, activity type, or any other factors.  To be included, studies had to meet quality-indicator criteria including true or quasi-experimental research design, reliability of measures, controlling for teacher effects, multiple classes in the experimental and control conditions, experimental and control group pretest equivalence, and both groups experiencing equal amounts of time learning the same topics. This search yielded 56 studies in 53 documents meeting criteria for inclusion, involving 6,235 students in grades 1-11. Students in experimental groups wrote about classroom content, while most controls did not write at all. Forty-six percent...

19 05 2020
How could parents effectively support children’s home learning ?

A recent meta-analysis published in Psychological Bulletin identified the importance of parental involvement in children’s adjustment. Parents should note that while their involvements were beneficial to students in many ways, their assisting in homework might have negative impacts on student’s achievements. This metanalysis was based on 448 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria, which included data from more than 480,000 families. The study analyzed the effects of parent’s school and home involvement’s on children’s adjustments. The findings showed that: In all, parents’ involvement was positively related to children’s outcomes. Parents’ involvement was beneficial not only to students’ achievement but also to students’ engagement, motivation, and social and emotional adjustments. Parents’ school involvement, which included participation in schools and governance, was beneficial. Except for homework involvement ,parents’ home involvement was beneficial to children’s adjustments in all aspects. These beneficial home involvement included discussion, encouragement, and provision of cognitively stimulating activities...

24 04 2020