卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

Does learning about oral language improve student literacy?

There is an accepted relationship between students’ oral language skills and their ability to master literacy skills in schools. The importance of developing oral language skills in the early years is important so that students can fully engage with instruction. However, to develop those skills, teachers must understand this relationship and support the development of oral language in their classrooms. One proposed approach to this is through professional learning that helps teachers develop new knowledge and beliefs as well as new pedagogy to address oral language development. A recent study by Goldfeld and colleagues tested whether the Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL) intervention, a teacher professional learning program focused on oral language in kindergarten and first grade, improved student literacy outcomes at the end of first and third grade. The study was conducted in Australia, in government and Catholic schools. A total of 36 schools were randomly assigned to...

20 01 2023
Digital divide in online learning in China

Online learning has drastically expanded in recent years. While some people believe there are certain advantages of online learning over traditional learning, others are concerned online learning will widen the inequality. Certainly, the online learning tsunami has created what is described as the “Digital divide”, which refers to the differences in access to, use of, and skills in information and communication technology (ICT) among different social groups. A study by Guo and Wan examined equity issues in online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stratified sampling was conducted to draw sample data from the Online Learning Survey of High School Students. A total of 27,710 (49.7% boys) students’ responses from 164 high schools in 10 provinces was included in the study. Three levels of digital divide were assessed regarding students’ online learning during the pandemic: First-level digital divide refers to equipment and network conditions. Though 95% of students had...

06 01 2023
Research of the feasibility and sustainability of school-based vision programs (SBVP)

Because of the lack of health care for children in eye care, school-based vision programs (SBVP) have been implemented in 20 states across the US. These programs involve bringing mobile clinics into schools and providing comprehensive eye exams to detect the uncorrected refractive error needs of students who have not passed vision screening, and at the end of the exam, parents receive a letter of feedback on the student’s results. The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical outcomes of an SBVP program in the Baltimore City Public Schools and the implications, and challenges faced. First, the screening results found that SBVP worked for children who failed screening questions in the first year of the Vision for Baltimore (V4B) program. By collecting refractive error profiles, it was found that those students who did not wear glasses had a more severe refractive error, and those who wore glasses and...

06 01 2023
Effects of apps on early math and reading

While thousands of educational apps are available to students, teachers, and parents, relevant research studies on their effectiveness are still limited. A meta-analysis by Kim and colleagues reviewed findings of 6 intervention studies and 285 effect sizes to figure out the effectiveness of educational apps for children in preschool to Grade 3. Results yielded a mean effect size of +0.31 in both math and literacy. Although outcomes varied across studies, results from this meta-analysis summarized the overall impact of educational apps and examined potential moderator effects.   Source (Open Access): Kim, J., Gilbert, J., Yu, Q., & Gale, C. (2021). Measures matter: A meta-analysis of the effects of educational apps on preschool to grade 3 children’s literacy and math skills. AERA Open, 7, 23328584211004184. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211004183… Read the rest

06 01 2023
How can a growth mindset intervention help students?

Mindsets or implicit theories are terms which refer to various subconscious beliefs about the malleability of human attributes (e.g., intelligence and emotion). Huang and colleagues recently conducted a pilot experiment to examine the effect of a growth mindset intervention on students’ implicit theory of intelligence, intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. The authors extended the intervention to establish a belief about the malleability of emotion so that students can regulate their emotion and thereby enhance their sense of self-determination, which is likely to reinforce their intrinsic motivation for learning. Students of 11 primary and middle schools across 48 classes from 2 cities in Guangdong Province, China, were recruited to sign up to the program. Participating students were randomly assigned either to the intervention group or the placebo-control group. The final sample consisted of 194 students (mean age = 11.3 years) in the intervention group and 213 students (mean age = 11.5...

18 11 2022
Does school tracking increase efficiency and inequalities in educational systems?

The Review of Educational Research recently published a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of school tracking on student achievement and inequalities. School tracking is the practice of assigning students based on their abilities and interests to different types of education, such as type of school or curricula. Within-school tracking consists of grouping students in different classrooms (e.g., ability grouping). Between-school tracking assigns students to different types of schools (e.g., vocational, academic), where the subjects taught are different and specific. The authors evaluated the effects of the two types of school tracking on student academic achievement – considering that a measure of efficiency of an educational system – as well as on inequalities, measured in two ways: dispersion of student performance, meaning the gap between high and low performers; and the interaction between social-economic background and student achievement. A positive interaction means that socio-economic background has a larger effect in tracked...

18 11 2022
Effect of blended learning on student performance

Li and colleagues recently conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of blended learning on K-12 students’ performance. In recent years, blended learning has become increasingly popular in K-12 education especially after the impact of COVID-19. Blended learning, also known as mixed or hybrid learning, refers to the combination of traditional face-to-face and online learning. In this meta-analysis, online learning is defined as any formal education program in which part of the instruction and content were delivered to students online with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace. A total of 84 studies with 112 effect sizes published from 2000 to 2020 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, compared to face-to-face learning only, the blended learning method showed a larger effect (ES = +0.65) with substantial heterogeneity. Effects were significantly different among various student outcomes domains. The cognitive domain (e.g., exam scores, ES = +0.74) was the...

04 11 2022
The effects of project-based learning on advanced placement exam scores

A recent cluster randomized controlled trial by Saavedra and colleagues evaluated the effect of a project-based learning approach to teaching advanced placement (AP) courses on AP exam scores. More schools are now offering advanced placement courses. Still, racial and socioeconomic gaps in attaining qualifying AP scores persist. Depending on the postsecondary institution, a qualifying AP score can help students earn college credits. The authors note that project-based learning may be a more relevant and applicable approach for all students to learn complex content, perform well on AP exams, and pursue and persist in postsecondary education. The intervention provided teachers with professional development and curricular materials to teach their respective AP course with a focus on project-based learning. Professional development consisted of a four-day summer institute, four full-day coaching sessions during the academic year, online coaching, and access to a curriculum portal. This specific study focused on project-based learning in AP...

21 10 2022
The effect of learning analytics on college students’ metacognitive awareness and academic achievement

A study conducted by Karaoglan Yilmaz out of Bartin University in Turkey examined the effect of learning analytics (LA) in an online learning environment on college students’ metacognitive awareness and academic achievement. LA is an instructional technology collecting, measuring, and reporting students’ online learning activities. It is expected to address the problems of negative experiences and the decrease of academic achievement in online learning environments.  Metacognitive awareness refers to students’ awareness and control over their learning. The higher the metacognitive awareness the better students plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning processes. The research was conducted in a public university in Turkey. During the 14-week study, participants were randomly assigned to experimental (LA, n = 25) and control (non-LA, n = 27) groups. Students in the experimental group received LA results weekly along with related recommendations and guidance feedback while those in the control group did not. At the end of...

21 10 2022