卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021
Can a classroom management program improve students’ social behaviors and academic achievement?

Achievement, Programme evaluation In an article published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Keith Herman and colleagues examined the effectiveness of the classroom management program CHAMPS on students’ social behaviors and academic achievement. CHAMPS is a teacher training program that focuses on six dimensions: Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, and Signal. The program provides teachers with training and coaching to support them in creating an effective classroom management plan. During the training, teachers learn how to promote responsible behaviors among their students and to preplan brief and calm ways to respond to misbehaviors. This study involved 101 sixth- to eighth- grade teachers and their 1,243 students in the Midwest. Teachers were randomly assigned to use CHAMPS in their classes for one school year (n=50) or to the control condition (n=51). Social behaviors were assessed using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist and academic achievement was assessed through the administration of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)...

24 02 2021
INSIGHTS into academic achievement

Social-emotional learning (SEL), such as the ability to set goals and manage frustration, have been positively associated with academic outcomes. These findings have encouraged policymakers to implement programs that help students build up their SEL competencies. However, the jury is still out on how well these programs impact academic outcomes. For example, Duncan and colleagues (2007) examined multiple large-scale national datasets and failed to find any significant associations between early SEL skills and math or reading skills in third grade. Furthermore, there are relatively few studies of the long-term impact of SEL interventions on students’ outcomes. To address these two gaps in the literature, Meghan McCormick and colleagues looked into the long-term impact of the social-emotional learning (SEL) program, INSIGHTS. INSIGHTS facilitators use temperament as a lens to teach parents and teachers how to best respond to student behavior, as well as deliver empathy and problem-solving curricula to students. Students' baseline scores were...

24 02 2021
Do academic performance related to mobile phone use?

Mobile phone use has become more common even among students. Would using mobile phone have any implication to students’ achievement? Recently, Liu and colleagues investigated the relationship between prolonged mobile phone use and academic performance among adolescents in China. The study was based on a sample from Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort conducted in 2015. The survey examined students’ weekday and weekend mobile phone use, sleep duration, insomnia, depression, and self-reported achievement. Among the sample of 11,831 students, the researchers were able to obtain the year end achievement tests score for Chinese, Mathematics, and English of 856 students following the baseline survey for the analysis. The results were as follows: Students achievement significantly decreased should their prolonged mobile phone use was more than 1 hour on weekday and 2 hours or more on weekend. After controlling for their backgrounds, students who used mobile phone more than two hours during...

10 02 2021
Do the effects of high-quality PreK persist?

A team of scholars evaluated the effects of a high-quality PreK learning environment on subsequent years of schooling. The study included the second cohort of children who entered PreK in the 2010-2011 school year in the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program, a well-known randomized experiment on PreK effectiveness, which found initial positive effects of PreK attendance, fading out over time. The final sample of the current study, after excluding 434 children with missing data, was composed of 806 students, including 491 PreK participants, and 315 non-participants. The results showed that: Neither attending high-quality schools, nor being taught by high-quality teachers, solely demonstrated significant evidence for the persistence of positive PreK effects through 3rd grade. However, when children were exposed to both high-quality schools and high-quality teachers, children who participated in PreK programs showed significantly greater achievement in ELA (b = .15, SE = .07, p < .05) and math (b = .17, SE...

10 02 2021
Is course acceleration a good-for-all policy?

Is exposing students to course acceleration the best way to help their skills acquisition? Recently RAND Corporation’s Andrew McEachin and his colleagues investigated the impact of enrolling in advanced math courses on students’ achievement and heterogeneity across schools. Hundreds of California middle schools use 7th-grade test scores to place students into 8th-grade algebra, but placement thresholds vary across schools. This study used such a scenario to estimate causal effects via a regression discontinuity (RD) design using 7th-grade algebra scores from the California Standards Test (CST) across 510 schools. Results suggest that: Enrolling in 8th-grade algebra increased students’ math scores by 0.05 SD and ELA by 0.34 SD on the 10th grade California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) tests. Further, the likelihood of students’ enrollment in advanced math in 9th and 11th grade rose by 30% and 16% when compared to their non-accelerated peers, with underserved students gaining the most from placement into early...

27 01 2021
Do school turnaround reforms improve student outcomes?

Recent controversy has surrounded the effectiveness of school turnaround efforts--programs designed to significantly reform schools or districts through changes to organization, staffing, and governance--to address student outcomes.  A recent meta-analysis by Redding & Nguyen seeks to shed light on the issue by examining the association between different forms of school turnaround and attendance, standardized test scores, and graduation rates. They highlight four school turnaround mechanisms—transformation and turnaround (including comprehensive instructional reform or teacher and principal effectiveness reforms), changes in human capital (through replacing the principal or teachers), changes in governance or management of low-performing schools (such as through state takeover of schools or school districts, closures of schools, or transitioning schools to charter status), and high-stakes accountability policies. Thirty-five of 13,800 studies screened were eligible for the analysis, showing that: There is evidence of positive association between school turnaround, transformation, and school restart and improvements in student attendance, math and ELA test scores, and graduation....

27 01 2021
Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies. A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’...

13 01 2021