卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

Teacher-student relationship is especially important for Chinese students from low SES families

In a recent article published in Current Psychology, Liu and colleagues (2021) employed a multilevel analysis on the impacts of teacher-student relationships on students’ achievements. The study used data from China’s Program of Regional Education Assessment, which was a national project. The project administered a standardized assessment and survey in 2016. The current study used a set of data comprised of 129 mathematics teachers and 8,707 fourth-grade students from 164 classes. The study examined the relationships between teacher-student relationships, students’ academic self-efficacy in mathematics, socioeconomic status, and mathematics achievements. Students’ socioeconomic status was measured by parents’ highest level of education, parents’ highest occupation status, and family property, including books in the home. The analysis showed that: The effects of SES on mathematics achievements was mediated by academic self-efficacy. There was a significant interaction between teacher-student relationships and SES for self-efficacy. The teacher-student relationship moderated the indirect relationship between SES and...

18 06 2021
How did different types of anxiety affect psychological well-being and academic outcomes?

An article recently published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence investigated how different types of anxiety symptoms influence students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement. 715 third or fourth graders in China were recruited for the study. They completed measures of anxiety every six months in three years. The measure covered five dimensions of anxiety, including panic disorder, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety, and school anxiety. Students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement were assessed in the third year of the study. The findings showed that: Students in the moderately high with predominant generalized and social anxiety group reported the lowest level of psychological well-being as the congruent-high group did. Their life satisfaction and self-esteem levels were the lowest, while they displayed the highest levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Students in the group of congruent-low anxiety and moderately low with predominant social anxiety showed the highest academic achievement....

18 05 2021
How did absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic affect student outcomes?

In March 2020, most schools in the United States transitioned to distance learning in an effort to contain COVID-19. During the transition, a significant number of students did not fully engage in remote learning opportunities due to resource or other constraints. An urgent question for schools around the nation is how much the pandemic impacted student outcomes. In a recent article published by Educational Researcher, the authors used administrative panel data from six large CORE Districts in California to approximate the impact of the pandemic by analyzing how absenteeism affected student outcomes. The results showed that: There were wide variation in absenteeism impacts on academic and social-emotional outcomes by grade and subgroup, as well as the cumulative effect of different degrees of absence.Student outcomes generally suffer more from absenteeism in mathematics than in English language arts.Negative effects are larger in middle school. Absences also negatively affect social-emotional development, particularly in middle school, which...

04 05 2021
The optimal amount of learning time

International student assessment programs found that Chinese students had the top-tier performance and the longest learning time beyond school education. A recent article published in the International Journal of Educational Development examined the relationship between learning time and performance among secondary school students in China. The study used data from the China Education Panel Study for analysis. The study was a large-scale nationally representative survey conducted in the 2013-2014 school year as the baselines. 19,487 students in the 7th and 9th grades from 112 schools. Students’ academic achievement was standardized based on their school’s midterm exam scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The after-class learning time was measured in terms of the average time per weekday and weekend spent on doing homework assigned by school teachers, doing homework assigned by cram school and parents, and taking cram school courses.  The results showed that: The relationships between after-class learning time and...

21 04 2021
Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021
Can a classroom management program improve students’ social behaviors and academic achievement?

Achievement, Programme evaluation In an article published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Keith Herman and colleagues examined the effectiveness of the classroom management program CHAMPS on students’ social behaviors and academic achievement. CHAMPS is a teacher training program that focuses on six dimensions: Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, and Signal. The program provides teachers with training and coaching to support them in creating an effective classroom management plan. During the training, teachers learn how to promote responsible behaviors among their students and to preplan brief and calm ways to respond to misbehaviors. This study involved 101 sixth- to eighth- grade teachers and their 1,243 students in the Midwest. Teachers were randomly assigned to use CHAMPS in their classes for one school year (n=50) or to the control condition (n=51). Social behaviors were assessed using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist and academic achievement was assessed through the administration of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)...

24 02 2021
INSIGHTS into academic achievement

Social-emotional learning (SEL), such as the ability to set goals and manage frustration, have been positively associated with academic outcomes. These findings have encouraged policymakers to implement programs that help students build up their SEL competencies. However, the jury is still out on how well these programs impact academic outcomes. For example, Duncan and colleagues (2007) examined multiple large-scale national datasets and failed to find any significant associations between early SEL skills and math or reading skills in third grade. Furthermore, there are relatively few studies of the long-term impact of SEL interventions on students’ outcomes. To address these two gaps in the literature, Meghan McCormick and colleagues looked into the long-term impact of the social-emotional learning (SEL) program, INSIGHTS. INSIGHTS facilitators use temperament as a lens to teach parents and teachers how to best respond to student behavior, as well as deliver empathy and problem-solving curricula to students. Students' baseline scores were...

24 02 2021
Do academic performance related to mobile phone use?

Mobile phone use has become more common even among students. Would using mobile phone have any implication to students’ achievement? Recently, Liu and colleagues investigated the relationship between prolonged mobile phone use and academic performance among adolescents in China. The study was based on a sample from Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort conducted in 2015. The survey examined students’ weekday and weekend mobile phone use, sleep duration, insomnia, depression, and self-reported achievement. Among the sample of 11,831 students, the researchers were able to obtain the year end achievement tests score for Chinese, Mathematics, and English of 856 students following the baseline survey for the analysis. The results were as follows: Students achievement significantly decreased should their prolonged mobile phone use was more than 1 hour on weekday and 2 hours or more on weekend. After controlling for their backgrounds, students who used mobile phone more than two hours during...

10 02 2021