卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Achievement

Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies. A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’...

13 01 2021
How does students’ academic achievement relate to family socioeconomic status in China?

Academic achievement is thought to be influenced by family socioeconomic status (SES), but the relationship is also affected by government interventions. A meta-analysis recently published in Educational Psychology Review examined the relationship between family SES and academic achievement in China and whether year, grade level, type of SES measures, and subjects of academic achievement moderate that relationship. The analysis was based on data drawn from 215,649 students in 62 studies (78 independent samples). Studies included in the search process were those conducted from January 1979 to May 2017 written in English or Chinese. To be included in the analysis, studies needed to be focused on the relation between SES and academic achievement, contain sufficient statistical detail, and be carried out on students from kindergarten to senior high school in China. The meta-analysis excluded any duplicated data and studies containing obvious errors or insufficient information. The key findings were: SES is...

30 12 2020
Private tutoring in China – Is it effective?

Private tutoring, which aims at enhancing student learning and achievement, has become a popular approach in education, especially in East Asia. According to the Chinese Society of Education, 137 million primary and middle school students were enrolled in after-school private tutoring in 2016. A recent study published in Children and Youth Services Review examined the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement, as well as emotional well-being and parent-child relationships, in Chinese junior high school students.  This study's data were from the 2014-15 cohort of the China Education Panel Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of junior high school students in China. A total of 9,449 junior high school students from 112 schools in mainland China participated in this cohort study. Students were asked whether they received private tutoring in either Chinese, English, or Mathematics and assessed their self-confidence, parent-child relationship, and depression. Students' midterm test scores in Chinese, English...

16 12 2020
Is teacher leadership related to students’ outcomes?

Teacher leaders are teachers who influence colleagues, principals, and other school members in an effort to improve teaching and learning practices as well as student outcomes and educational experiences. Moreover, teacher leadership is a process to facilitate whole school change and to promote professional learning and shared decision making. A meta-analysis by Shen et al. (2020) synthesized studies on the relationship between teacher leadership and student academic achievement. The review included 21 studies carried out in the United States and found a small, positive correlation between teacher leadership and student academic achievement (r = .187). The details of findings were as follows: Considering the seven dimensions of teacher leadership – categorized by the authors based on the literature – the dimension of “facilitating improvements in curriculum, instruction, and assessment” (r = .21) and “promoting teacher professional development” (r = .19) have the strongest relationship with student academic achievement. The authors also...

04 11 2020
The Cost-Benefit Case for Tutoring

Individual preK-12 tutoring experiments, varying widely in context, approach, and cost, have shown the positive impact of tutoring and small-group programs. However, a recent meta-analysis sought to summarize the findings of experimental studies since 1980. The study is the first systematic review or meta-analysis of experimental research on preK-12 tutoring interventions of all types. The authors defined tutoring as one-to-one or small-group human instruction aimed at supplementing rather than replacing classroom-based education. No correlational or quasi-experimental studies were included in this review. Through the search and screening process, 96 studies were included. The authors found that: Tutoring programs yield substantial positive impacts on learning outcomes, with an overall pooled effect size estimate of +0.37. Furthermore, effects are stronger on average for teacher and paraprofessional tutoring programs as opposed to nonprofessional and parent tutoring. Effects also tend to be strongest among the earlier grades. The main takeaways from this review are nothing new....

07 10 2020
Low-achieving students in China benefited more in a specialized teacher incentive program

A study recently published in Economics of Education Review examined how a teacher incentive program improved the math performance of students in rural China. The authors suggested that since teachers in rural China are evaluated by students’ high school entrance exam scores and the rate of matriculation into academic high schools, they might tend to focus on mid- and high-performing students and neglect the low-achieving students. With a view to overcoming this, the study examined the effectiveness of a modified pay-for-percentile incentive program that granted teachers 60% more pay incentives for improvements in the outcomes of low-achieving students. The study conducted a clustered randomized control trial using 1,825 fifth-grade students from 52 schools which implemented the program, and another 1,964 fifth-grade students from 51 control schools which did not implement the program. Students’ math performances were accessed by standardized tests before and after the one-year program. The results were as...

22 09 2020
Representational pictures or decorative pictures for testing students

A recent study investigated the cognitive and affective-motivational effects of adding a representational picture (RP) or a decorative picture (DP) to text-based science and mathematics tests. 404 fifth and sixth grade students participated in the computer-based test administration divided into three multimedia conditions – text-only, RP, or DP – and in two test domains –mathematics or science. Each item of the test had a short text, a separate question, and four answer options, plus a picture in RP and DP conditions. RPs were gray pictures and illustrated important information to build a mental representation of the item situation. DPs were colorful, attractive pictures broadly related to the item content. The results showed that: Results on students’ solution success showed a significant positive effect for RP items compared to text-only items in science (ES = +0.25), while no significant effects were found for DP items compared to text-only items (ES = +0.02)....

22 09 2020
Chinese students’ academic performance and parenting styles

Family is influential on students' learning in many ways. Recently, Yang and Zhao (2020) examined parenting practices' impacts on children's academic performance using a large sample of middle school students in China. The analysis was conducted using data from the China Education Panel Survey 2015, which was a nationally representative survey in China. The study sampled 9,920 students from 112 middle schools in China. The survey included questionnaires for the students, their parents, teachers, and the school. Moreover, students' academic achievement was measured by their exam scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics provided by their respective school administration offices. The analysis examined the relationships between academic performance and parenting styles. The findings were as follows: The most dominant parenting styles of Chinese parents were authoritarian and neglectful. Authoritarian parenting style was conducive to academic performance. The effects of parenting styles were more salient among children from a disadvantaged background and...

12 08 2020
Virtual charter schools’ consistent and persistent negative impacts

As COVID-19 pushes more schools online, the call for evidence of online learning is at a premium. Virtual charter schools are one recent innovation claiming to utilize technology for more individualized and flexible learning. However, a recent article published in Educational Researcher from Fitzpatrick and colleagues used a robust quasi-experimental approach to confirm prior negative effects of the virtual charter model as a whole. Fitzpatrick and colleagues looked at state-wide end-of-year test results from Indiana in grades 3-8, including data from students in four virtual charter schools and 67 in-person (“bricks and mortar”) charter schools. The researchers set up a comparison group by matching students who transferred into a virtual charter school to a similar student in a traditional public school. They also looked at how virtual students compared to students who transferred into the more typical, in-person charter school. Results show that: Virtual charters schools negatively affected student achievement. This effect grew...

15 07 2020