卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Writing supported by virtual reality

In a recently published article in the British Journal of Educational Technology, Hwang & Chang (2019) examined how the spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) approach can support descriptive article writing in Taiwan senior high school writing classes.

In traditional language learning activities, as the authors identified, there is usually no chance for students to develop in-depth feelings about the context of topics, resulting in low learning motivations and limited expression in the writing process.

To provide in-depth experiences and to facilitate students’ descriptive article writing, the study introduced an SVVR system that used 360-degree photos or videos in a VR environment supporting students before they started to write. Two classes of 11th graders participated in the study, 30 students being allocated to the experimental group and 35 students to the control group. After students understood the writing tasks and read a descriptive article text about the Jade Mountain in Taiwan, students in the experimental group used the SVVR to experience the ascent of the Mountain, while students in the control group only watched videos and saw photos of the Mountain. The study was conducted in 2 weeks with 3 hours of class per week. Before and after that, a pre-test and a post-test on their writing performance and questionnaires were conducted. The results showed that:

  • While students’ writing performance in both groups was similar in the pre-test, students who learnt with the SVVR approach obtained better post-test results in terms of content and appearance than students in the control group, but not in organization and vocabulary use.
  • Students learning with the SVVR approach also outperformed control group students in creativity tendency and writing self-efficacy in the post-test.
  • However, experimental group students and control group students did not differ in learning motivation and cognitive load in the post-test.

The authors suggested that SVVR is worth promoting in school settings for language courses and experiential learning activities, because it is a low-tech and low-cost way to provide deep experience in specific learning contexts. 

Source : Huang, H. L., Hwang, G. J., & Chang, C. Y. (2019). Learning to be a writer: A spherical video‐based virtual reality approach to supporting descriptive article writing in high school Chinese courses. British Journal of Educational Technology. Advanced Online Publication. Doi: 10.1111/bjet.12893. … Read the rest

Preschool teachers’ personality and their beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices

A recent study published in the Frontiers in Psychology examined how teachers’ beliefs and practices were related to their personality in preschool settings.

Among a sample of 544 preschool teachers in Hong Kong, which included pre-service and in-service teachers, Wong (2019) used questionnaires to examine how teachers’ beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices were related to their personality.

The questionnaire included the Myer–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is a personality inventory that measures four dimensions of personality, namely “Extroversion-Introversion,” “Sensing-Intuition,” “Thinking-Feeling” and “Judging-Perceiving.” Moreover, the Teacher Beliefs and Practices Survey was used to measure teachers’ beliefs and their instructional activities about developmentally appropriate practices. The findings were as follows:

  • The predominant personality type profiles of preschool teachers were ” Sensing-Feeling-Judging”. The in-service teachers in the sample were characterized by the dominance of sensing (86.7%), feeling (64.0%), and judging (83.4%).
  • Extroverted and intuitive teachers tended to hold stronger beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices, in contrast to introverted teachers and sensing teachers.
  • Teaching experience also contributed to preschool teachers’ beliefs in, and use of, developmentally appropriated practices, which might minimize the limitations linked to the sensing type personality found in the majority of preschool teachers.

However, the author remarked that although random sampling was used, the sample was only from one tertiary institution. Therefore, readers should be cautious about the generalizability of the results.

 

Source (Open Access): Wong ,P.Y. (2019) Teaching beliefs on developmentally appropriate practice among Chinese preschool teachers: the role of personality. Frontiers in Psychology. 10:2822. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02822Read the rest

The effect of linguistic comprehension training on language and reading comprehension

Kristin Rogde and colleagues from the Campbell Collaboration have completed a systematic review that examines the effects of linguistic comprehension instruction on generalized measures of language and reading comprehension skills. Examples of linguistic comprehension skills include vocabulary, grammar, and narrative skills.

The authors searched literature dating back to 1986, and identified 43 studies to include in the review, including samples of both pre-school and school-aged participants. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experiments with a control group and a pre-post design were included. Key findings of the review were as follows:

  • The linguistic comprehension programs included in the review display a small positive immediate effect on generalized outcomes of linguistic comprehension.
  • The effect of the programs on generalized measures of reading comprehension is negligible.
  • Few studies report follow-up assessment of their participants.

According to the authors, linguistic comprehension instruction has the potential to increase children’s general linguistic comprehension skills. However, there is variability in effects related to the type of outcome measure that is used to examine the effect of such instruction on linguistic comprehension skills.

 

Source (Open Access): Rogde, K., Hagen, Å. M., Melby‐Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2019). The effect of linguistic comprehension instruction on generalized language and reading comprehension skills: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 15(4), e1059.doi:10.1002/cl2.1059Read the rest

How to make a systematic review’s meta-analysis high quality

Terri Piggott at Loyola University Chicago and Joshua Polanin at AIR have published a Methodological Guidance Paper: High-Quality Meta-Analysis in a Systematic Review , now appearing on RER’s Online First website.

A meta-analysis synthesizes the quantitative findings of many studies on a given topic. The guidance paper outlines the characteristics that make a meta-analysis in a systematic review high quality, discussing unbiased screening and coding procedures, establishing a protocol for carrying out a review, and then discussing in depth the best practices for computing effect sizes and reporting the data.

The authors conclude that “the role of researchers using systematic review and meta-analysis is to produce both high-quality analyses and to interpret those results in ways accessible to a wide audience. A high-quality systematic review and meta-analysis is difficult and time-consuming to produce; it is worth the effort to ensure that the results inform future research and policymaking through clear discussion of the results. Researchers should consider preparing different summaries of their review tailored to their audience of researchers, policymakers, and practitioners.”

 

Source: Pigott, T. D., & Polanin, J. R. (2019). Methodological Guidance Paper: High-Quality Meta-Analysis in a Systematic Review. Review of Educational Research. Advanced Online Publication. Doi:10.3102/0034654319877153Read the rest

Link between positive teacher-student relationships and good behavior in teens

A study has found that having a positive relationship with a teacher when a child is 10 to 11 years old can be linked to “prosocial” behaviors such as cooperation and altruism, as well as a reduction in problem classroom behaviors such as aggression and oppositional behavior.

The study used data from a major longitudinal study of Swiss youth among a culturally diverse sample of 7 to 15 year olds, and involved 1,067 students randomly sampled across 56 of the city’s schools. Only students who experienced a change of teacher when the student was 9 or 10 were used for the study, with data gathered from teachers, students, and their parents on an annual and later biannual basis.

Using this data, Ingrid Obsuth and her team were able to “score” the children on over 100 different characteristics or experiences that could potentially account for good or bad behavior. They then matched students in pairs with similar scores in all respects except for how they felt about their teacher, and how the teacher felt about them. The results showed that:

  • Students who had a more positive relationship with their teacher displayed more prosocial behavior toward peers (on average 18%, and 10% more up to two years later) over students who felt ambivalent or negative toward their teacher.
  • Also, they were up to 38% less aggressive behavior (and 9% less up to four years later).

 

Source (Open Access): Obsuth, I., Murray, A. L., Malti, T., Sulger, P., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. (2017). A non-bipartite propensity score analysis of the effects of teacher–student relationships on adolescent problem and prosocial behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(8), 1661–1687.Read the rest