卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Using technology to facilitate personalized learning in China

An article recently published in Frontiers in Psychology reported how technology is used to facilitate personalized learning in China. Xiaofeng You and colleagues examined the Chinese Learning Diagnosis System (CLDS) developed by a Chinese educational evaluation company designed for providing timely feedback to students and teachers. 

The CLDS analyzes students’ assignments for their mastery of various attributes and generates feedback to students and teachers. Consequently, students can identify their strengths and weakness and teachers can modify their instruction using the information. To examine the CLDS’s effectiveness, the achievements, self-efficacy, and academic motivation of 547 high school students enrolled in an experimental school in 2012 were compared to 396 high school students in a school where CLDS was not used. Achievement in the pretest was measured by high school entrance examination scores, and achievement in the posttest 3 years later was measured by the college entrance examination scores; both are high stakes tests in China. The results indicated that: 

  • While the pretest scores of the experimental school students and the control school students did not show a significant difference, the experimental school students obtained higher scores than the control school students in the posttest (ES= +0.31 for humanities students; ES= +0.66 for science students)
  • Self-efficacy of students in the experimental school significantly increased (ES= +0.38), while no significant changes were found in students in the control school. 
  • Academic motivation was found increased among both students in the experimental school (ES= +0.33) and the control school (ES= +0.31). 

Teachers in the experimental school reported that the time taken for unit tests was also reduced, enabling them to provide detailed instructions to individual students who made mistakes in the tests. 

 

Source (Open Access): You, X., Li, M., & Liu, H. (2019). The Feedback of the Chinese Learning Diagnosis System for Personalized Learning in Classrooms. Frontiers in Psychology10, 1751.Read the rest

Future Planning and Achievement among Chinese students

Several studies have indicated the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how students plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between Chinese junior high school students’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains.

This study conducted three assessments six months apart from Spring 2014 to Spring 2015 in Shandong Province in eastern China. Seven hundred and seventy-five students from sixth to eighth grades participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured students’ future explorations, commitments, and their affects concerning future education and occupation. Data of their academic achievement were collected from school records of their scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The relationships were analyzed with data collected at different times.

The analysis showed that:

  • There were reciprocal relations between academic achievement and Chinese junior students’ future educational planning.
  • However, reciprocal relations were not held between academic achievement and future planning in the occupational domain.
  • Commitment’s relation to achievement was more robust than that of exploration to achievement.
  • The relationships were the same for both boys and girls.

The authors suggested that understanding the importance of educational performance led junior high school students to invest more effort into improving achievement. The social status brought by high academic achievement in Chinese society might also trigger positive affects concerning future planning.

 

Source: Zhao, J., Li, R., Ma, J., & Zhang, W. (2019). Longitudinal relations between future planning and adolescents’ academic achievement in China. Journal of Adolescence, 75, 73-84.Read the rest

New review of evidence on parental engagement

review of evidence published by the Education Endowment Foundation in the UK shows how parental engagement can have a positive effect on a child’s academic achievement – regardless of age or socioeconomic status.

The review, conducted by the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter and supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), concludes that parental engagement in children’s learning is associated with improved academic outcomes, and that the association is stronger when parental engagement is defined as parents’ expectations for their children’s academic achievement. All studies controlled for parents’ education and/or family socioeconomic status.

The review highlights areas of promise for how schools and early education settings can support parents in a way that improves their children’s learning.

  • Examples include family literacy interventions to help boost younger children’s learning, and summer reading programs that improve school-aged children’s learning, particularly among families from more disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • An overarching recommendation is the importance of schools planning and monitoring parental engagement activities to get the most out of them.
  • Other recommendations look at the best ways to communicate with parents, and strategies for supporting learning at home.

The report also includes guidance on tailoring school communications to encourage parental engagement and offering more intensive support where needed.

 

Source (Open Access): Axford, N., Berry, V., Lloyd, J., Moore, D., Rogers, M., Hurst, A., … & Minton, J. (2019) How Can Schools Support Parents’ Engagement in their Children’s Learning? Evidence from Research and Practice. London, England: Education Endowment Foundation. Read the rest

Improving attendance by improving school conditions

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a student missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that students are not getting the support they need.

The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and student social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance.

The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.

 

Source (Open Access) : Chang, H.N., Osher, D., Schanfield, M., Sundius, J. & Bauer, L. (2019). Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning. Washington, DC :Attendance Works.Read the rest

What are the best self-regulated learning strategies for Chinese students?

Self-regulated learning has been regarded as essential for effective learning. Research suggests that self-regulated learning is associated with academic performance, but different self-regulated learning strategies are not equally effective. Addressing the gap that occurred because few studies conducted in Asia were included in a previous meta-analysis, a meta-analysis published in Frontiers in Psychology has investigated what the most effective strategies for Chinese students were.

Using Chinese academic databases, Li and colleagues analyzed 264 independent samples that involved 23,497 participants from 59 studies. In order to be included in this meta-analysis, studies had to be conducted in real teaching situations; studies based on online learning environments were excluded. Furthermore, participants had to be elementary, junior high or secondary high school students in China. The effect sizes of self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement were analyzed. The result showed that: 

  • Among the self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy (ES= 0.70), self-evaluation (ES= 0.72), and task strategies (ES= 0.60) had relatively large effect sizes on academic achievements.
  • On the other hand, the effect sizes of goal orientation (ES= 0.09) and attributions (ES= 0.27) were relatively small. 
  • The effect sizes of self-regulated learning on science (ES= 0.45) were larger than those on language (ES= 29).

The authors suggested that task strategies supported learning by reducing a task to its key parts and self-evaluation supported learners to compare the outcomes with their goals and standards, while self-efficacy facilitated learners to use their resources. The findings also indicated that students in China showed a different pattern in self-regulated learning. 

 

Source (Open Access): Li, J., Ye, H., Tang, Y., Zhou, Z., & Hu, X. (2018). What are the effects of self-regulation phases and strategies for Chinese students? A meta-analysis of two decades research of the association between self-regulation and academic performance. Frontiers in Psychology9, 2434.Read the rest