卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
How do teachers with different expectations of their students teach differently?

Regardless of students’ actual achievement, teachers’ expectations of their class can make a difference because these may affect how they treat the class. A recently published article in Social Psychology of Education examined how teaching practices and classroom interactions differ between high- and low-expectation junior high school teachers in China.

A teacher expectation survey was first completed by 50 junior high school teachers to classify them with respect to their expectations of their class. Teachers who had a high level of expectation relative to the actual achievement were classified as high expectation teachers. Finally, the study randomly selected and approached 10 teachers, eight of whom agreed to participate in the class observation study. Thirty-two lessons by these teachers were observed and coded using a structured observation protocol that notes down the occurrence of teacher questioning, feedback, and classroom management every two minutes. The teaching practices and interaction patterns of high- and low-expectation teachers were compared.

The result showed that, in some aspects such as the amount of questioning, giving praise and criticism, there were no significant differences between high and low expectation teachers. However, high expectation teachers did stand out in the following features: 

  • High expectation teachers referred to students’ prior knowledge and learning experiences more frequently, and gave more orientation or focus statements, telling students about the learning activities that would take place.
  • High expectation teachers provided more feedback to the whole class.
  • When students answered correctly, high expectation teachers were more likely to question further or provide explanations.
  • When students answered incorrectly, high expectation teachers were more likely to encourage the students to try again.

The authors suggested that the result could help teachers understand how their expectations get communicated to students. They recommended that teachers form high and appropriate expectations for all students, with the aid of effective teaching strategies and a warm learning environment, to support all students to fulfill their potential.

 

Source: Wang, S., Rubie-Davies, C. M., & Meissel, K. (2019). Instructional practices and classroom interactions of high and low expectation teachers in China. Social Psychology of Education22(4), 841-866.Read the rest

Does quality of instruction improve outcomes in early childhood education?

The Education Endowment Foundation in the U.K. has published an evaluation of a program that trains preschool teachers to improve children’s language outcomes. The Using Research Tools to Improve Language in the Early Years (URLEY) intervention is an evidence-based professional development program for preschool teachers. It is designed to improve teacher’s knowledge of how children learn and develop oral language skills, and how to support that learning through evidence-based practice. Teachers take part in five day-long professional development workshops in which they are introduced to evidence-based learning principles and research tools to evaluate and refine pedagogy and practice. In particular, teachers are taught to use Environment Rating Scales (ERS) —research-validated observational rating scales known to predict aspects of children’s development, with higher scores linked to improved math and English achievement. Teachers watched videos of effective practice and were supported to use the language principles and ERS to “tune in” to language-supporting practice.

Nearly 2,000 children from 120 schools from the West Midlands, Liverpool, and Manchester participated in the trial from October 2016 to July 2018. The program was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial, testing the impact of the URLEY program on children’s language development over two years, compared to business as usual in control schools.

The results of the trial found that :

  • Children in schools receiving URLEY did not make additional progress in language development compared to children in control schools, as measured by a composite language score (effect size = -0.08).
  • However, the program did show a positive impact on the quality of instruction (as measured by ERS), with effect sizes in the range of +0.5 to +0.7.

 

Source (Open Access): Wright, H., Carr, D., Wiese, J., Stokes, L., Runge, J., Dorsett, R., Heal, J., & Anders, J. (2020). URLEY: Evaluation report. London, United Kingdom: Education Endowment FoundationRead the rest

Review of professional learning and development in early childhood education

Approaches to professional development that combine coaching or mentoring with new knowledge and opportunities for reflection on practice may be the most effective in improving outcomes in early childhood settings, according to a study published in Review of Education.

Sue Rogers and colleagues conducted the systematic review, which was funded by the Nuffield Foundation, in order to examine the impact of professional learning and development. The studies included in the review identify approaches to professional learning that demonstrate impact on early childhood education on one or more outcomes across three main areas: literacy knowledge and skills, math and science knowledge, and social-emotional and behavioral development. 

The findings from the review suggested that:

  • Coaching models, and approaches that help develop pedagogical knowledge, may be the most effective in improving outcomes in early childhood settings.
  • The evidence on duration, frequency, and intensity of the professional learning, although likely to be important factors, was inconclusive.

 

Source (Open Access): Rogers, S., Brown, C., & Poblete, X. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence base for professional learning in early years education (The PLEYE Review). Review of Education, 8(1), 156–188.Read the rest

The evidence behind strategies to reduce absenteeism

Phyllis Jordan at FutureEd recently authored Attendance Playbook: Smart Solutions for Reducing Chronic Absenteeism, a report outlining strategies for reducing chronic absenteeism and the evidence behind each suggested strategy. The strategies are presented by Tier I, II, and III intervention levels as follows:

  • Tier I
  1. Effective Messaging and Engagement (e.g., Nudging Parents and Students)
  2. Removing Barriers to Attendance (e.g., School-based Health Services)
  3. Improving School Climate (e.g., Relevant—and Culturally Relevant—Curriculum)
  • Tier II
  1. Effective Messaging and Engagement (e.g., Early Warning)
  2. Removing Barriers to Attendance (e.g., Addressing Asthma)
  • Tier III
  1. Including Truancy Courts, Interagency Case Management, and Housing

Each strategy described is followed by a list of the evidence supporting it, ranked by ESSA evidence strength (strong, moderate, promising, emerging), with a link to each report. Short descriptions of schools and districts using the strategies are also included.

 

Source (Open Access): Jordan, P. (2019). Attendance playbook: Smart solutions for reducing chronic absenteeism. Washington, DC: FutureEd.Read the rest

What are the effects of increased learning time?

The Institute of Education Sciences has released a report that examines the effects of increased learning time on student academic and nonacademic outcomes. A meta-analysis was conducted on the topic in which over 7,000 studies were screened, but only 30 met the research team’s standards for rigorous research (including meeting evidence standards established by the What Works Clearinghouse). A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time can be positive under some conditions. Some forms of instruction tailored to the needs of specific types of students were found to improve their circumstances. Specific findings included:

  • Increased learning time promoted student achievement in mathematics and literacy when instruction was led by a certified teacher and when teachers used a traditional instructional style (i.e., the teacher is responsible for the progression of activities and students follow directions to complete tasks).
  • Increased learning time improved literacy outcomes for students performing below standards.
  • Increased learning time improved social-emotional skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

 

Source (Open Access): Kidron, Y., and Lindsay, J. (2014). The effects of increased learning time on student academic and nonacademic outcomes: Findings from a meta-analytic review (REL 2014–015). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation. Read the rest