卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Does enhancing teacher expectation benefit students?

Teachers’ expectations are believed to affect students, but teacher expectation intervention studies that compare an intervention group to a control group are rare. A recent study published in Learning and Individual Differences investigated the effects of an intervention in China that enhanced teachers’ behaviour of conveying high expectations to students.

The study randomly selected two schools in the urban area of a city in south China. Four Grade 8 English teachers in each school were randomly chosen and evenly allocated to either the intervention or control group. While the control group teachers did not receive training, the intervention group teachers were provided with training workshops focusing on three strands of high expectation behaviour, namely, giving students challenging tasks, providing affirmation or suggestions to students about their performance, and enhancing how teachers impart personal regard to students. 

Teachers were asked to estimate the final exam score they believed each student would achieve for the study to categorize students into high-, middle- and low-expectation groups. Then, the study selected 30 students from each class, consisting of 10 each of high, middle, and low expectation students, to participate in the study. Among the 240 students selected, 229 students provided complete data for analysis. Students’ self-concepts regarding English and the English test achievement of 113 students from the intervention group and 116 students from the control group were gathered at the end of Grade 7, the middle of Grade 8, and at the end of Grade 8. 

The result showed that: 

  • While the self-concept of students from the control group significantly declined from the end of grade 7 to the end of grade 8, the self-concept of mid- and low-expectation students from the intervention group significantly increased over the year.
  • Students from the intervention group also increased in English achievement, while no significant changes were found among students in the control group.
  • Low expectation students exhibited most gains in both self-concept and achievement. 

The authors concluded that teachers giving challenging tasks, detailed feedback, and enhanced personal regard to students has a positive impact on improving students’ self-belief and academic achievement. 

 

Source: Ding, H., & Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2019). Teacher expectation intervention: Is it effective for all students?. Learning and Individual Differences, Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2019.06.005Read the rest

The effect of screen time on academic performance

A meta-analysis examining the evidence between overall screen time, specific screen-based activities, and academic achievement found that overall screen time is not related to children’s and teens’ academic achievement, yet the type of screen time is.

Mireia Adelantado-Renau and colleagues in Spain found that TV and video game time greater than two hours a day was associated with poorer academic achievement, while internet and mobile phone time was not. In addition, the negative effects on academics were larger for teens than for children.

The meta-analysis included 58 studies from 23 countries that met its inclusion criteria, encompassing the academic achievement of 106,000 4-18 year olds (assessed by school grades, standardized tests, and academic failure). Subgroup analysis was conducted between children and teens. The findings were:

  • In children (4-12 years old), the length of TV watching negatively affected performance in language (ES= -0.20) and math (ES= -0.36).
  • in teens (12-18 years old), longer TV duration affected language (ES= -0.18) and math (ES= -0.21).
  • Playing video games also negatively impacted teens’ scores (ES= -0.16), but did not affect the scores of younger children (ES=+0.04).

The authors suggest that these findings offer evidence that decreasing TV and video game time might be an effective strategy in improving academic achievement in children and teens.

 

Source (Open Access): Adelantado-Renau, M., Moliner-Urdiales, D., Cavero-Redondo, I., Beltran-Valls, M. R., Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., & Álvarez-Bueno, C. (2019). Association between screen media use and academic performance among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(11), 1058–1067. Read the rest

Digital feedback in Primary Maths

The Education Endowment Foundation in the UK has published an evaluation of Digital Feedback in Primary Maths, a program that aims to improve primary school teachers’ feedback to students.

The intervention uses a tablet application called Explain Everything, diagnostic assessments, and training on effective feedback. The app allows teachers to provide students with digitally recorded feedback on a tablet, rather than written feedback. Students have the opportunity to review their feedback and develop their work further. By improving teachers’ diagnostic and feedback skills when teaching math in primary schools, the intervention aims to ultimately improve student outcomes in math.

To estimate the impact of Digital Feedback on math achievement, the evaluation used a randomized controlled trial involving 2,564 students in 108 classes across 34 English primary schools. While the intervention took place in each school, classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group, which carried on with business-as-usual teaching.

The results of the evaluation found no evidence that students taking part in the program made more progress in math, on average (effect size = -0.04), than a similar group of students who did not.

 

Source (Open Access): Sutherland, A., Broeks, M., Sim, M., Brown, E., Iakovidou, E., Ilie, S.,..., Belanger, J. (2019). Digital Feedback in Primary Maths – Evaluation report. London, UK: The Education Endowment Foundation. Read the rest

The impact of shared book reading on children’s language skills

This meta-analysis, published in Educational Research Review, explores whether shared reading interventions are equally effective across a range of study designs, across a range of different outcome variables, and for children from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups.

Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria:

  • Must contain a universal and/or targeted shared book reading intervention
  • Must include at least one control group
  • Participants must be typically developing children aged seven years old or younger
  • Must not target multilingual populations and/or the acquisition of an additional language
  • Must isolate the variable of interest (shared book reading)
  • Must report on objective quantitative measure of language ability
  • Must provide sufficient data to calculate the effect size

The results suggest :

  • There was an overall effect size (+0.19) of shared reading on children’s language development.
  • This effect was moderated by the type of control group used and was near zero in studies with active control groups (ES = +0.03).
  • There were also no differences across outcome variables or for SES.

 

Source (Open Access): Noble, C., Sala, G., Peter, M., Lingwood, J., Rowland, C., Gobet, F., & Pine, J. (2019). The impact of shared book reading on children’s language skills: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review. Advanced online publication. Doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2019.100290 Read the rest

Staying on track – how ability grouping determines future earnings

When children start school, they are often divided into ability groups, and by high school this trend is formalized further, as students are directed onto different tracks in the U.S.. In theory, students are placed on tracks in order to maximize their achievement by grouping them based on ability or college orientation. Researchers have previously found that these tracks offer uneven opportunities for further achievement and success in college.

Now, a study in Urban Education has shown how this effect persists into adulthood. The study examined the link between tracking in secondary school and salary income for young adults and whether these effects vary by the individual’s gender and race.

Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, the researchers found that educational tracking is associated with future income, independent of the quantity of education that individuals receive.

The researchers suggest that it is important to inform educators, as well as parents and youth, on the long-term implications of track placement to ensure that they understand the ramifications of tracking decisions.

 

Source: Moller, S., & Stearns, E. (2012). Tracking success: High school curricula and labor market outcomes by race and gender. Urban Education47(6), 1025-1054.Read the rest