卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies.

A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’ outcomes on state tests in mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA) through sixth grade. Of the original sample of students, 76% of the students (n = 332) remained in the study through sixth grade. The findings were as follows:

  • At the end of grades 3 and 4, results favored the INSIGHTS group on ELA test (ES = +0.27, third grade; ES =+0.23, fourth grade).
  • However, no significant results were found in fifth grade scores (ES = -0.06.) nor in sixth grade scores (ES = -0.05.).
  • On math tests, no statistically significant results were found in any grade.

Although effects of INSIGHTS on students’ test scores were observed after two and three years from the end of the intervention, impacts were not sustained during the last year of elementary school and in the first year of middle school.

 

Source: McCormick, M. P., Neuhaus, R., O’Connor, E. E., White, H. I., Horn, E. P., Harding, S., ... & McClowry, S. (2020). Long-Term effects of social-emotional learning on academic skills: Evidence from a randomized trial of INSIGHTS. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. Advanced online publication. Doi:10.1080/19345747.2020.1831117

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Effects of an SEL and literacy development program

Harvard University’s Stephanie Jones and colleagues examined 2-year experimental impacts of a school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development, called the 4Rs, on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning.

The 4Rs program, an intervention unique in its integration of literacy practices and social-emotional skill-building, has two components: literacy-based curriculum delivery in social-emotional learning and teacher training. Subjects were from 18 public New York City inner-city elementary schools (n= 9 treatment schools and 9 Control schools; treatment students =630 students, control students =554 students). The treatment group received both components of the intervention from 3rd to 5th grade. Results suggested that:

  • Children in the intervention schools showed improvements in several non-cognitive domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depression, teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior.
  • While there were no main effects of the intervention on teacher reports of children’s academic skills, those who were at the highest behavioral risk at baseline demonstrated improvement in math (+0.56) and reading (+0.60) achievement, as measured by children’s scaled scores on New York State standardized assessments.

Source: Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Lawrence Aber, J. (2011). Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy intervention: an experiment in translational developmental research. Child Development82(2), 533–554.Read the rest

Students’ emotional regulation also matters to homework completion and math achievement

Homework completion and achievement can be affected by how students handle their emotions. An article recently published in Contemporary Educational Psychology examined the reciprocal effects of emotional regulation, homework completion, and math achievement on each other using a longitudinal design.

The study was conducted in four public schools in China, from which 1,480 8th graders participated. These schools were regular schools in contrast to key schools which select high-achieving students. When the study began, 69.4% of participating students did math homework four days or more in a week and, on average, spent 34.5 minutes on that per day. Students completed a questionnaire about homework emotion regulation, including emotion management and cognitive reappraisal and were assessed for their homework completion and math achievement first at the beginning of November and again seven and a half months later. Standardized tests guided by national math curriculum standards in China were used to access math achievements. The relationships were tested by a reciprocal model. The results showed that:

  • Emotion management and math achievement were reciprocally related to each other.
  • Higher achievement resulted in higher subsequent cognitive reappraisal, but prior cognitive reappraisal was not related to subsequent achievement.
  • Interactions between emotion management and cognitive reappraisal significantly predict subsequent homework completion. However, neither emotion management nor cognitive reappraisal independently predicted homework completion.

The authors suggested that the reciprocal influences of emotion management and achievement indicated that promoting both simultaneously is a more beneficial way of teaching. Teachers should also pay attention to cultivating emotion management in their teaching by giving explicit advice or encouraging students to take the initiative themselves.

 

Source: Xu, J., Du, J., Liu, F., & Huang, B. (2019). Emotion regulation, homework completion, and math achievement: Testing models of reciprocal effects. Contemporary Educational Psychology59, 101810.Read the rest

Are computer-supported literacy interventions effective for young children?

Computer-assisted learning (CAL) is gaining popularity due to its promise of cost-effectiveness, individualized approach, and enhanced engagement. However, before incorporating CAL in traditional classrooms, it is important to understand the effectiveness of CAL. Recent research, published in Educational Research Review, presents a meta-analysis on computer-supported early literacy interventions in preschool and kindergarten settings to provide some insights into the overall effect and determinants of CAL.

Including only randomized trials and quasi-experimental designs, Ludo Verhoeven and his colleagues selected 59 qualified and rigorous studies, which involved a total of 6,786 preschool and kindergarten students. The outcomes of interest were children’s phonological awareness and reading-related skills in alphabetic languages. Statistical analysis showed that

  • Computer-supported early literacy interventions, on average, had small but positive and statistically important effects on learning outcomes (ES = +0.28).
  • This effect size was smaller than those found in previous meta-analyses that investigated teacher-supported early literacy interventions, which lends evidence to a plausible conclusion that teachers are more effective than computers in enhancing literacy skills in early childhood development.
  • Moreover, effect sizes in different studies vary widely, ranging from -0.92 to +2.10. A closer look at moderators of the treatment effects reveals that integrated learning systems increase children’s phonological awareness greatly.

The authors recommend that schools integrate curriculum with technology-enhanced early literacy interventions to produce better outcomes. Lastly, effect sizes were larger in quasi-experimental studies compared to randomized trials, demonstrating that more rigorous methods give smaller effect sizes.

 

Source (Open access): Verhoeven, L., Voeten, M., van Setten, E., & Segers, E. (2020). Computer-supported early literacy intervention effects in preschool and kindergarten: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 100325. Read the rest

How does students’ academic achievement relate to family socioeconomic status in China?

Academic achievement is thought to be influenced by family socioeconomic status (SES), but the relationship is also affected by government interventions. A meta-analysis recently published in Educational Psychology Review examined the relationship between family SES and academic achievement in China and whether year, grade level, type of SES measures, and subjects of academic achievement moderate that relationship.

The analysis was based on data drawn from 215,649 students in 62 studies (78 independent samples). Studies included in the search process were those conducted from January 1979 to May 2017 written in English or Chinese. To be included in the analysis, studies needed to be focused on the relation between SES and academic achievement, contain sufficient statistical detail, and be carried out on students from kindergarten to senior high school in China. The meta-analysis excluded any duplicated data and studies containing obvious errors or insufficient information. The key findings were:

  • SES is moderately correlated with academic achievement in China (E.S. = +0.24).
  • Over the years, the relation between SES and academic achievement in China has been decreasing gradually.
  • The relation between SES and academic achievement is stronger regarding language achievement than science/math achievement.
  • Grade level andtype of SES measure did not have significant impacts on the relation between SES and academic achievement.

The authors suggested several ways by which educational policies could address educational inequality based on the result. For example, they indicated that more public learning resources and opportunities for languages could be provided as the relationship between SES and language achievement is stronger.

 

Source (Open Access): Liu, J., Peng, P., & Luo, L. (2020). The relation between family socioeconomic status and academic achievement in China: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review32(1), 49-76.Read the rest