卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Growth Mindset and Work Engagement of Chinese Teachers

Individuals with a growth mindset believe that abilities can be developed over time. While this concept has been gaining popularity for its impact on students, a recent study published in Frontiers in Psychology examined how a growth mindset is related to work engagement of Chinese middle school teachers.

Using a questionnaire that contained measures of growth mindset, work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being, Zeng and colleagues examined the relationships of these factors with 472 teachers from 10 urban secondary schools in Chengdu city who participated in the study. They found that: 

  • Growth mindset of teachers was strongly and positively correlated with work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being.
  • Growth mindset was positively associated with work engagement, while the relationship was also partially mediated by well-being and perseverance of effort.

The authors suggested that despite the differences between Easterners and Westerners in cognitive styles, social orientation, values and motivation, the result demonstrated the benefit of growth mindset to teachers in China. They recommended promoting teachers’ work engagement through not only enhancing their well-being but also through building up their growth mindset and perseverance of effort. 

 

Source (Open Access): Zeng, G., Chen, X., Cheung, H. Y., & Peng, K. (2019). Teachers' growth mindset and work engagement in the Chinese educational context: Well-being and perseverance of effort as mediators. Frontiers in Psychology10.Read the rest

New practice guide on technology use in postsecondary education

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) has released a new practice guide that focuses on promising uses of technologies associated with improving postsecondary student learning outcomes. Research that was eligible for the guide used a comparison group design, included an intervention that used technology to support student learning, involved college students in the United States, was published in 1997 or later, and reported on one or more outcomes in a relevant domain (e.g., academic achievement, credit accumulation and persistence). After considering the evidence, an expert panel drafted the following recommendations and assigned a level of evidence to each:

  • Use communication and collaboration tools to increase interaction among students and between students and instructors. (minimal evidence)
  • Use varied, personalized, and readily available digital resources to design and deliver instructional content. (moderate evidence)
  • Incorporate technology that models and fosters self-regulated learning strategies. (moderate evidence)
  • Use technology to provide timely and targeted feedback on student performance. (moderate evidence)
  • Use simulation technologies that help students engage in complex problem-solving. (minimal evidence)

The guide provides research-based strategies and examples for implementing each recommendation in a postsecondary setting.

 

Source (Open Access): Dabbagh, N., Bass, R., Bishop, M., Costelloe, S., Cummings, K., Freeman, B.,… & Wilson, S. J. (2019). Using technology to support postsecondary student learning: A practice guide for college and university administrators, advisors, and faculty. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.Read the rest

Do higher teacher qualifications mean better early childhood education and care?

This Campbell systematic review examines the evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of early childhood learning environments, as measured by the Environment Rating Scale (ERS). The review summarizes findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. The studies had to be comparative or correlational and report either an overall quality scale or an environment rating scale.

Overall, the review suggests that higher teacher qualifications are positively associated with classroom quality in early childhood education and care (effect size = +0.20). The review also suggests a positive correlation between teacher qualifications and classroom quality on a number of subscales, including:

  • Program structure– focusing on the schedule, time for free play, group time, and provisions for children with disabilities (ES = +0.22).
  • Activities– this relates to fine motor, art, music/movement, blocks, sand/water, dramatic play, nature/science, math/number, use of digital technologies, and promoting acceptance of diversity (ES = +0.20).
  • Language and reasoning – encouraging children to communicate, use language to develop reasoning skills, and the informal use of language (ES = +0.20).

The researchers conclude that while there is evidence for the relationship between teacher qualification and classroom quality as measured by the ERS, further research is also needed into the specific knowledge and skills that are learned by teachers with higher qualifications that enable them to complete their roles effectively. It is important to note also, that while higher quality in early childhood education and care may lead to improved outcomes for children, we cannot assume that this is the case.

 

Source (Open Access): Manning, M. , Garvis, S. , Fleming, C. & Wong, G. T. (2017), The relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood education and care environment. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 13: 1-82. doi:10.4073/csr.2017.1Read the rest

A little help from your friends

An article in the British Journal of Psychology describes research into whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socioeconomically vulnerable young people. The authors conclude that such friendships facilitate resilience, and that at least one close friendship helps adolescents craft meaning and strength amid substantial adversity.

A total of 409 participants aged 11 to 19 were recruited through three comprehensive secondary schools and two colleges in Yorkshire with deprived surrounding areas (n=394), and through an online mailing list for peer supporters (n=15). They completed self-reported measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed:

  • There was a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalizing coping.
  • There were gender differences. Perceived friendship quality facilitated effort and friendship network support more strongly for boys than girls, and in contrast it promoted constructive coping more strongly for girls. Boys were more vulnerable to the harmful effects of disengaged and externalizing coping than girls.

The authors suggest a number of implications for practice, including:

  • Practitioners might prioritize existing and emerging supportive adolescent friendships within resilience interventions
  • Interventions might promote peer-based coping skills and self-efficacy
  • Supportive peer friendships might be regularly included within assessments of psychosocial resources by clinicians and educators

 

Source :Graber, R., Turner, R., & Madill, A. (2016). Best friends and better coping: Facilitating psychological resilience through boys’ and girls’ closest friendships. British Journal of Psychology, 107(2), 338–358. Read the rest

Does happiness make you rich?

An article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) has found that happy people tend to earn more. The authors used data from a large representative panel in the U.S., and looked at earnings approximately ten years after well-being was measured. They found that

  • Adolescents and young adults who reported higher life satisfaction grew up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life.
  • The positive emotions and the experience of feeling happy at 16 and age 18, as well as life satisfaction at age 22 also predicted later earnings at age 29.

This conclusion takes into account the possibility that people may imagine their future high socioeconomic status and that this might have a positive impact on their current well-being. Other factors, such as education, intelligence, physical health, and height were also taken into account in the analysis.

 

Source (Open Access):De Neve, J.-E., & Oswald, A. J. (2012). Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(49), 19953–19958. Read the rest