卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Language Development

Does learning about oral language improve student literacy?

There is an accepted relationship between students’ oral language skills and their ability to master literacy skills in schools. The importance of developing oral language skills in the early years is important so that students can fully engage with instruction. However, to develop those skills, teachers must understand this relationship and support the development of oral language in their classrooms. One proposed approach to this is through professional learning that helps teachers develop new knowledge and beliefs as well as new pedagogy to address oral language development. A recent study by Goldfeld and colleagues tested whether the Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL) intervention, a teacher professional learning program focused on oral language in kindergarten and first grade, improved student literacy outcomes at the end of first and third grade. The study was conducted in Australia, in government and Catholic schools. A total of 36 schools were randomly assigned to...

20 01 2023
Rapid automatized naming and spelling performance

Rapid automatized naming, the ability of an individual to name as quickly as possible a list of familiar visual stimuli, e.g., letters, digits, objects, or colors, has been found to be a significant predictor of literacy skills.  Chen and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between RAN and spelling accuracy (RAN-spelling) in alphabetic languages. In addition, the relationship between RAN and reading (RAN-Reading) was also examined. A total of 103 studies met the inclusion criteria, and a robust variance estimation approach, which takes into account non-independent effect sizes, was adopted in the analysis. Overall, mean effect size for RAN-spelling relation was r = 0.35 (95% predictive interval PI: 0.06- 0.66) and RAN-reading was r=0.44 (PI: 0.05- 0.71). Given the presence of significant heterogeneity for both relations, a series of moderator analyses was conducted. With respect to the RAN-spelling relation, the results below show the significant moderators: Word type:...

20 01 2023
Writing instruction designed for deaf learners

A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) by Wolbers and colleagues evaluated the effect of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) on writing outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. SIWI, developed specifically for deaf learners, explicitly teaches the writing process, provides interactive and co-constructed writing opportunities, and helps learners develop metalinguistic and linguistic skills. The RCT included students in grades 3 through 5 randomly assigned to the treatment (n=43) or business as usual control condition (n=36). Participants were students from different educational environments across the country, including self-contained or pullout classes in public schools or schools for the deaf. Teachers in the treatment condition administered the writing intervention 2 hours per week for nine weeks. The study found that the treatment students outperformed the control students on writing to recount (ES=+3.32) and writing information (ES=+1.12). Additionally, treatment students were assessed nine weeks after the intervention period had...

20 01 2023
One-to-one and small-group tutoring for reading. Which is more effective?

Reading Rescue is a tutoring program for students struggling to read in first grade. The program is implemented in one-to-one sessions, 30 minutes per day, by teaching assistants trained to deliver the program. Lessons include fluency building, daily assessments, phonics instruction, sentence writing, and vocabulary development. A version of Reading Rescue to be delivered to groups of three students was developed through a collaboration between researchers and practitioners to make the program more cost effective and to be able to help more students. The study investigated which version, one-to-one or small group, was more effective in enhancing students’ early literacy skills. First graders in two cohorts were randomly assigned to receive Reading Rescue either one-to-one (n=63) or in a small-group (n=96), or to a control group (n=91) who continued with teacher regular practice. Both one-to-one and small groups received a total of 50 sessions five times a week. Early literacy...

09 12 2022
Effects of DISE ELL instruction after one and two years

Direct Instruction Spoken English (DISE) is a curriculum designed to teach English as a second language to students in grades 4 to 12. DISE integrates students with varying native languages and groups them by English language proficiency. DISE starts with the basics in vocabulary, pronunciation, comprehension, and syntax, and increases in complexity across all areas. Teachers provide frequent, explicit instruction and feedback. In a randomized, controlled evaluation, Chapparo and colleagues compared the effects of DISE on 6th and 7th grade English language learners with beginning-intermediate English language skills to a similar group who experienced business-as-usual second language instruction, looking at their performance at the end of one and two years. Twenty-nine schools in Texas, Oregon, and Washington were randomly assigned to DISE (n=14) or to a business-as-usual control condition (n=15). Experimental students received DISE 45-55 minutes a day, every other day, which is half the recommended amount. Control groups received...

09 12 2022
The effects of a language-based intervention on comprehension skills

Oral language comprehension skills are foundational to building reading comprehension. Thus, early instruction designed to develop oral comprehension skills may benefit long-term reading outcomes for children in early childhood education classrooms. With that in mind, Lo and Xu conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of Let’s Know!, a language-focused, supplementary curriculum, on prekindergarten and kindergarten students’ vocabulary and comprehension outcomes. The intervention consisted of providing students with four 30-minute class lessons per week that focused on specific language skills. The program was designed to be administered over 25 weeks. Study participants were 69 prekindergarten classrooms (n=361 students) and 56 kindergarten classrooms (n= 328 students) randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition. Classroom teachers in the treatment condition taught one of two Let’s Know! versions: Let’s Know! Broad and Let’s Know! Deep. Both versions were designed to improve language comprehension based on the simple view of reading,...

18 11 2022
Does an academic language curriculum improve elementary students’ reading skills?

A recent randomized evaluation funded by the Institute of Education Sciences investigated the effects of WordGen Elementary on students’ reading achievement. WordGen Elementary includes a curriculum with reading, writing, and speaking activities that aim to enhance students’ understanding and communication of academic language as well as improve their reading skills. The implementation of the program is supported by professional development for teachers. The study involved 55 elementary schools in five states with a high percentage of English learners. Students were randomly assigned to receive WordGen Elementary or to continue with their regular practice. Reading achievement was measured using the Core Academic Language Skills Instrument (CALS-I), Gates-MacGinitie reading test (GMRT), and state ELA test. Results after one year showed close to zero effects on CALS-I (ES = -0.06), GRMT (ES = -0.08), and the state ELA test (ES = -0.03) for both fourth and fifth graders. The study separately analyzed the...

04 11 2022
Effects of a multitiered system of language support on kindergarten oral and written language

Petersen and colleagues conducted a large-scale randomized controlled trial, aiming to examine the effects of a multitiered system of language support (MTSLS) on kindergarten children’s oral and written language. Participants included 686 kindergarten students from 4 school districts in the Upper Midwest region. Researchers randomly assigned 28 full-day kindergarten classrooms to treatment (n=337 students) or control (n=349 students) conditions. The treatment group received 14 weeks of oral narrative language instruction using Story Champs, a contextualized language intervention and a discourse-based oral language curriculum. After 4 weeks of large group (Tier 1) Story Champs intervention, a random sample of students who did not make adequate progress in Tier 1 intervention (n=49 students) received supplemental small group (Tier 2) intervention. Results were showed below. Students in the treatment group had significantly higher scores on all outcome measures (i.e., narrative retell, personal story generation, expository retell, and narrative writing) compared to those in...

26 08 2022
Does storytelling matter for preschoolers?

A research team in New York University evaluated a classroom-based oral storytelling program called Reading Success Using Co-Constructive Elaborative Storytelling Strategies (R-SUCCESS). R-SUCCESS is composed of three phases: pre-telling, which builds key content knowledge and vocabulary; telling, which involves specific strategies to scaffold children’s active listening skills and engagement; and post-telling, which supports children’s comprehension skills. The program was delivered at least twice a week for a 6-month period.   A total of 185 children within 12 classrooms participated in the study. The program was implemented in a Head Start program serving immigrant children with Latin American backgrounds. Among 12 participating lead teachers, six teachers in the intervention group were trained to deliver R-SUCCESS. The remaining six teachers, who served as a comparison group, were trained to have regular book reading sessions using the same techniques used in the pre-telling and post-telling phases in the intervention group. The key differences...

30 07 2022