卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Language Development

An evaluation of Descubriendo la Lectura tutoring

Geoffrey Borman and his team administered a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL), the Spanish version of Reading Recovery. DLL is a literacy intervention for Spanish-speaking students. 187 low-performing first-graders were recruited from two school districts in the United States to participate in the study. Students in both control and intervention groups received classroom-level transitional bilingual programs, and students in the intervention group received 12 to 20 weeks of additional one-to-one Spanish-language literacy tutoring from trained DLL teachers. To become a trained DLL teacher, teachers needed to receive a 2-year training program, and ongoing professional development and support. Students' literacy skills were assessed before and after the intervention on Logramos, the Spanish-language version of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Students who received DLL demonstrated significantly greater performance on vocabulary, comprehension, and word analysis after the intervention. The study also used another assessment tool called IdO,...

24 03 2021
Effects of a language-based reading intervention

A quasi-experimental field trial conducted by Proctor and colleagues, which was published in Reading Research Quarterly, examined the effects of a language-based reading intervention, called CLAVES, among bilingual students in Grades 4 and 5. The framework of CLAVES consisted of language components, language functions, discussion, and reading comprehension, which integrated ELA and social studies into three thematic units. Each unit had three instructional cycles, focusing on text-based language and comprehension (Cycle 1 & 2) and writing (Cycle 3). 239 bilingual students (Portuguese-English and Spanish-English) from 8 schools in the Northeast and the Mid-Atlantic regions of the US were assigned to the intervention group (n=119) and the control group (n=120). The participating teachers (n=22) were responsible for both intervention and control group instruction. Results showed significant positive effects of the intervention on both reading comprehension (ES=+0.17) and academic language (ES=+0.25). No moderation effects were found by pre-intervention language proficiency on the outcomes.  ...

10 03 2021
PHAST, a program for adolescent struggling readers

The PHAST Reading Program is designed to support struggling readers in middle school. The program combines instruction in phonological skills and strategies to build word identification accuracy. It also incorporates motivational practices due to the low motivation associated with struggling readers. A recent study by Canadian and American researchers evaluated the effects of PHAST Reading on two groups: one addressing comprehension and one addressing fluency. The study was conducted in the US and Canada, and randomly assigned 514 struggling readers in grades 6, 7 and 8 to the PHAST Reading Comprehension (n = 217), PHAST Reading Fluency (n = 216) or the control group (n = 81). The interventions were delivered in pull-out sessions in student groups of 4 to 8. After almost one year of intervention, results comparing PHAST Reading (the two groups together) to the control group showed that: There were larger effects for foundational reading skills than for reading...

10 03 2021
Effects of an SEL and literacy development program

Harvard University’s Stephanie Jones and colleagues examined 2-year experimental impacts of a school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development, called the 4Rs, on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The 4Rs program, an intervention unique in its integration of literacy practices and social-emotional skill-building, has two components: literacy-based curriculum delivery in social-emotional learning and teacher training. Subjects were from 18 public New York City inner-city elementary schools (n= 9 treatment schools and 9 Control schools; treatment students =630 students, control students =554 students). The treatment group received both components of the intervention from 3rd to 5th grade. Results suggested that: Children in the intervention schools showed improvements in several non-cognitive domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depression, teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior.While there were no main effects of the intervention on teacher reports of children’s academic skills, those who were at...

13 01 2021
Are computer-supported literacy interventions effective for young children?

Computer-assisted learning (CAL) is gaining popularity due to its promise of cost-effectiveness, individualized approach, and enhanced engagement. However, before incorporating CAL in traditional classrooms, it is important to understand the effectiveness of CAL. Recent research, published in Educational Research Review, presents a meta-analysis on computer-supported early literacy interventions in preschool and kindergarten settings to provide some insights into the overall effect and determinants of CAL. Including only randomized trials and quasi-experimental designs, Ludo Verhoeven and his colleagues selected 59 qualified and rigorous studies, which involved a total of 6,786 preschool and kindergarten students. The outcomes of interest were children’s phonological awareness and reading-related skills in alphabetic languages. Statistical analysis showed that Computer-supported early literacy interventions, on average, had small but positive and statistically important effects on learning outcomes (ES = +0.28). This effect size was smaller than those found in previous meta-analyses that investigated teacher-supported early literacy interventions, which lends evidence to...

13 01 2021
The relationship of bilingualism and cognitive advantage

Compared to monolingual people, bilingual people are generally considered to have a cognitive advantage related to executive function (EF). A recent meta-analysis conducted by Gunnerud and colleagues investigated whether bilingual children had an advantage in EF by examining different components of inhibition, switching, attention, monitoring, working memory, and planning. 100 publications (between 1980 to 2017) were identified, which included 143 group comparisons and 583 effect sizes. The bilingual advantage was statistically significant in overall EF (ES=+0.06). The study further performed a moderator analysis to investigate whether a cognitive advantage could occur under certain conditions. Regarding sample characteristics, the results showed that: Socioeconomic status (SES) difference was a significant moderator variable, and middle-class SES children had a greater bilingual advantage than lower-class children (β=0.235; p =.017) and upper-middle-class children (β=0.230; p =.046). Also, results from one lab showed a significantly larger effect than the studies from other labs (β=0.153; p =.011). In terms...

30 12 2020
Poor literacy skills hold poorer students back in science

A report, published by the Education Endowment Foundation in the UK and the Royal Society, has reviewed existing studies to identify interventions and teaching approaches that have a positive impact on student learning in science, particularly for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The researchers from the University of Oxford analyzed data in the National Pupil Database in England to measure the extent of the gap in the performance between economically disadvantaged students (students who have been entitled to free school meals at least once in the last six years) and students from higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds on national science tests. This analysis confirmed that disadvantaged students had much lower scores and made poorer progress in science, at every stage of their school career, than students from higher SES backgrounds. The gap first becomes apparent at Key Stage 1 (ages 5 – 7) and only gets wider throughout primary and secondary school....

09 09 2020
Should we be differentiating literacy instruction?

A recent meta-analysis explored the impact of differentiated instruction in elementary literacy.  Differentiated instruction is when teachers “modify content, process, and/or products in response to individual student differences in readiness, learning profiles, and interests.”  These modifications may be designed before the instruction takes place, or happen organically as teachers react to students’ learning.  Instruction may also be differentiated by adjusting the content (what students learn), the process (how students learn), and the product (how student demonstrate learning).  This meta-analysis attempted to systematically examine whether differentiation in the general (Tier 1) classroom by a general education teacher is effective, and whether there are any factors that explain differences in that effectiveness.  A total of 18 studies were included in the review. The results were as follows: Across all studies, outcomes were significantly positive for comprehension (ES = +0.09) and letter-word reading (ES = +0.20), but did not reach significance for fluency or...

09 09 2020
Are early reading programs helping young struggling readers?

Does early reading instruction really deliver important outcomes for struggling readers? A review in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness addressed this question by focusing on students in Grades 1-3 who struggle with reading. Researchers systematically reviewed 33 studies conducted between 2002 and 2017 to investigate the effects of reading intervention on word and pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and passage fluency. In total, 128 effect sizes (n=11,737) ranging from -0.20 to +1.37 were collected: The mean effect size of +0.39 (p<0.001) confirmed the hypothesis that early reading interventions were generally effective, with encoding and writing interventions more effective than phonological awareness interventions. Meta-analytic results also indicated that one-to-one instruction (ES=+0.46) was more effective than small-group instruction (2-5 students) (ES=+0.31). Research results suggest that the position of instructors – researchers, certified teachers, university students, or paraprofessionals – does not have a significant impact on outcomes.   Source: Gersten, R., Haymond, K., Newman-Gonchar, R., Dimino,...

09 09 2020