卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Language Development

Writing supported by virtual reality

In a recently published article in the British Journal of Educational Technology, Hwang & Chang (2019) examined how the spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) approach can support descriptive article writing in Taiwan senior high school writing classes. In traditional language learning activities, as the authors identified, there is usually no chance for students to develop in-depth feelings about the context of topics, resulting in low learning motivations and limited expression in the writing process. To provide in-depth experiences and to facilitate students’ descriptive article writing, the study introduced an SVVR system that used 360-degree photos or videos in a VR environment supporting students before they started to write. Two classes of 11th graders participated in the study, 30 students being allocated to the experimental group and 35 students to the control group. After students understood the writing tasks and read a descriptive article text about the Jade Mountain in Taiwan,...

25 02 2020
The effect of linguistic comprehension training on language and reading comprehension

Kristin Rogde and colleagues from the Campbell Collaboration have completed a systematic review that examines the effects of linguistic comprehension instruction on generalized measures of language and reading comprehension skills. Examples of linguistic comprehension skills include vocabulary, grammar, and narrative skills. The authors searched literature dating back to 1986, and identified 43 studies to include in the review, including samples of both pre-school and school-aged participants. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experiments with a control group and a pre-post design were included. Key findings of the review were as follows: The linguistic comprehension programs included in the review display a small positive immediate effect on generalized outcomes of linguistic comprehension. The effect of the programs on generalized measures of reading comprehension is negligible. Few studies report follow-up assessment of their participants. According to the authors, linguistic comprehension instruction has the potential to increase children’s general linguistic comprehension skills. However, there is variability in...

25 02 2020
Effects of Word Generation on academic language, vocabulary, and reading comprehension outcomes

A study published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reports on the impact of Word Generation on academic language, vocabulary, and reading comprehension outcomes for students in grades 4 to 7. Word Generation (WG) is a vocabulary program designed to teach academic vocabulary words through English, math, science, and social studies classroom activities. For this study, 7,725 4th to 7th grade students from 25 schools in the northeast U.S. were randomized within pairs to either treatment or business-as-usual control conditions. In treatment schools, the program was implemented throughout the school year. In grades 4 and 5, this involved 12 ten-day long units of 45-50 minutes per day. For grades 6 and 7, the program was implemented in six-week long units designed to take 45 minutes each day in science and social studies classes. The results showed: At the end of the first year, students in grades 4 and 5 also made...

29 01 2020
Promoting emotional intelligence and positive emotions in foreign language classrooms

A study published recently in Frontiers in Psychology explored whether emotional intelligence and classroom motivation in foreign language classrooms can be improved by positive psychology intervention. This study was conducted in two classes from a high school in China. The two classes, taught by the same English teacher, were randomly assigned as the intervention group consisting of 56 students and the control group consisting of 52 students For the intervention group, a six-week emotional intelligence intervention was implemented, consisting of one hour of ARGUER training of emotional intelligence each week, along with keeping a weekday diary, and reflection. Themes of the six sessions of ARGUER training were: Awareness of feelings and emotions in self and others Recognizing emotions in self and others Generating positive emotions that facilitate thinking Understanding causes and consequences of emotions in self and others Expressing emotions appropriately Regulating emotions in self and others effectively Students’ weekday...

15 01 2020
Play-based curriculum benefits young children and teachers

Findings from a randomized controlled trial of Tools of the Mind (Tools) suggest that the program improves kindergarten students’ academic outcomes in reading and writing, enhances children’s joy in learning and teachers’ enjoyment of teaching, and reduces teacher burnout. The Tools program is a play-based preschool and kindergarten curriculum that emphasizes self-control, language, and literacy skills. The study, published in the journal PLoS One, analyzed the effectiveness of Tools on kindergarten teachers and 351 children (mean age 5.2 years at entry) with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in 18 public schools in Canada. Schools were paired with closely matched schools and then randomized to either the intervention group or control group. Teachers in the intervention group received a three-day workshop on Tools before the school year began, along with funds for resources. Control group teachers were offered the same amount of training hours and funds for whatever training and resource materials they wanted. The results showed...

30 12 2019
Effects of different rewards on spelling scores and prosocial behavior

A study published in Educational Psychology examines how different approaches to rewarding students affected their spelling scores and prosocial behavior for different ability levels. A total of 1,005 students, aged 9 and 10, in 28 classes were recruited from three primary schools in Singapore. Classes were randomly assigned to one of five reward conditions: competitive, cooperative, individualistic, cooperative-competitive, and cooperative-individualistic. An ABABA (A= implementation, B = withdrawal) design was used for each condition, and students’ spelling scores were tracked over a period of 10 weeks. Teachers were asked to rate students’ prosocial behavior before and after the study. The results showed that The different conditions did affect students’ spelling scores and prosocial behavior, but that these effects depended on ability level, such that different conditions were more effective for different ability levels.  Across all five conditions, only the cooperative-competitive condition resulted in increased spelling scores and prosocial behavior across all three ability groups,...

30 12 2019
Mother’s reading level makes a difference

An article published in the Early Childhood Education Journal shows that maternal reading level predicts both a child’s receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency prior to schooling, after maternal education is taken into account. The findings also controlled for ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status. The authors used a sample of 155 children (aged 3-5 years) and their mothers (aged 20-44 years) of low-income and low-educational backgrounds from Western Canada. Children and mothers were tested individually for their reading proficiency using standardized tests, and children’s receptive vocabulary proficiency was also tested. The mothers were also interviewed one-to-one for demographic information. All the families spoke English first and foremost, although some were bilingual. The findings were: Both mothers’ measured reading levels and their reported educational levels were significant predictors of children’s reading proficiency, each over and above the other. However, in the case of children’s receptive vocabulary proficiency, they...

30 12 2019
Texting parents helped with early literacy

A study of a program that sent literacy-related advice via text messages to parents of preschool children showed that it improved both the parents’ literacy behavior and the children’s early literacy. READY4K! is an eight-month-long text messaging program for parents of preschool children. Parents receive texts that cover literacy skills, encourage them to participate, and provide follow-up tips. In the study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, 519 parents in California were randomly assigned to receive the program or a series of “placebo” texts (e.g., about school enrollment) during the 2013-14 school year. The results indicated: The texts increased the frequency with which parents read books to children and other literacy activities (effects up to 0.35 standard deviations higher). According to teachers, texted parents asked more questions about their child’s learning (up to 0.19 standard deviations higher) than placebo parents, and their children performed better on early measures of literacy...

30 12 2019
The impact of shared book reading on children’s language skills

This meta-analysis, published in Educational Research Review, explores whether shared reading interventions are equally effective across a range of study designs, across a range of different outcome variables, and for children from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: Must contain a universal and/or targeted shared book reading intervention Must include at least one control group Participants must be typically developing children aged seven years old or younger Must not target multilingual populations and/or the acquisition of an additional language Must isolate the variable of interest (shared book reading) Must report on objective quantitative measure of language ability Must provide sufficient data to calculate the effect size The results suggest : There was an overall effect size (+0.19) of shared reading on children’s language development. This effect was moderated by the type of control group used and was near zero in studies...

04 12 2019