卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Language Development

The importance of parental involvement in enhancing children’s literacy level

Children’s home reading under parental supervision can supplement in-class reading. A paper published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness investigated the effects of a one-year parental involvement intervention on the development of primary school children’s reading skills. The researchers adopted school-level cluster randomization and recruited 600 grade 2 students from Tanzania (12 experimental schools, 264 students; 12 control schools, 336 students). Groups were similar in terms of child’s gender, parent’s gender, parental educational level, and parental income. The intervention incorporated four parts: training sessions for teachers and parents; parents’ and children’s shared reading at home; partnership between parents and teachers; and parental involvement in children’s homework. Outcomes of interest included three dimensions of reading achievement: word decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results showed significant enhancement in word decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension at the end of the one-year intervention. A follow-up assessment 8 months after the...

01 10 2021
The effect of pairs one-on-one tutoring on early grade literacy

SPARK (now renamed Future Forward), developed by the Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee (BGCGM) in 2005, is an early grade literacy intervention for students in high-poverty schools. As a school-community-family partnership strategy, this program seeks to improve K-3 students’ literacy skills through in-school one-on-one tutoring provided by AmeriCorps volunteers or college students with family engagement. Jones and Christian evaluated the effect of SPARK in 7 public schools in Milwaukee serving primarily low-income students of color. They randomly assigned 576 participating students in grades K-2 into either the intervention or the comparison groups. Most students were African American (79.7 %), and 95.3% qualified for free or reduced-price lunch. For those eligible to participate, most of them (85%) were not proficient in reading at baseline. After 2 years of implementation, the results indicated that: SPARK was found to have significantly positive effect on foundational literacy skills (PALS: ES = +0.23)...

01 10 2021
Does technology help students build English vocabulary?

Computer or mobile-based English enhancement programs are gaining popularity among English language learners around the world. A recent publication in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness investigated the effects of these technology-assisted interventions on expanding English language learners’ vocabulary. The paper synthesized studies conducted between 2012 to 2018. Eligible studies followed treatment-control experimental designs, targeted pre-school to college-aged students who learned English as a foreign language, and reported vocabulary-related learning outcomes. Researchers identified 45 studies that met these inclusion criteria. Compared with traditional instructional methods, technology-supported English learning programs were conducive for building vocabulary (ES = +0.85, p < .05). Detailed analysis revealed that mobile-assisted vocabulary learning (ES = +1.09, p < .05) was more effective than computer-assisted learning (ES = +0.63, p < .05). Contrary to common assumptions, technology without gamification (ES = +0.90, p < .05) was more effective than game-based technology (ES = +0.49, p <...

17 09 2021
Paper vs. screen: What works best in children’s reading?

There is large interest in the literature on digital books and their effect on children’s reading skills. A recent meta-analysis clarifies the impact of medium (paper vs. screen) on reading comprehension and vocabulary. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to use experimental or quasi-experimental designs; compare reading a narrative in both digital and print formats in school, home, or lab settings; and include students 1-8 years old. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review. In five studies, digital books contained the same content as paper books, while the other studies’ digital books included additional features: Thirteen digital books were supplemented with a dictionary, and eighteen digital books included story-related enhancements, such as digital story-telling. The results showed a positive impact of digital books compared to paper books on vocabulary (ES = +0.20) but not on story comprehension (ES = -0.07). Characteristics of settings and books were found to be relevant...

15 07 2021
The transfer effects of a morphological intervention for students with limited vocabulary knowledge

One approach to help students with vocabulary acquisition is to increase their awareness of the morphological structure. A randomized control trial study published in Reading Research Quarterly examined the transfer effects of a morphological intervention for students with limited vocabulary knowledge in Danish, which is like English in that most words consist of more than one morpheme. Transfer effects are the essence that distinguishes morphological training from direct vocabulary training. About 12 students with the most limited Danish vocabulary knowledge from each of 29 fifth-grade classes in 13 schools participated in the trial (N=332). The students within each class were randomly assigned to a control group or to one of two treatment groups: a morphological vocabulary intervention or a context-based vocabulary intervention. Students in the two treatment groups received 24 lessons of 30 minutes separately, two days per week. The interventions were delivered by 5 trained speech-language therapists, each responsible for instruction in both...

15 07 2021
Family literacy sessions could boost learning

The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) in the UK has published findings from a new evaluation report of “Family Skills,” a program that aims to improve the literacy and language of children learning English as a second language. A total of 115 primary schools in England took part in a randomized controlled trial of Family Skills. Over the course of one term, parents of four- and five-year-olds were offered weekly sessions with family learning tutors. The 2.5 hour sessions focused on topics like reading to children, phonics, making the most of bilingualism, learning through play, and understanding primary education in England. Families were encouraged to do learning activities at home with their children, and were also given opportunities to visit a local library and take a tour of their child’s school. The evaluation, conducted by the National Centre for Social Research, found that: Overall, children of parents who were offered the Family Skills intervention...

30 06 2021
Effectiveness of secondary reading programs

Secondary reading performance has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In a study published in Reading Research Quarterly, Baye and colleagues conducted a quantitative synthesis on the effectiveness of reading programs for secondary students. Sixty-nine studies that met high evidence standards were identified, including 62 randomized and 7 quasi-experimental designs. All studies included took place in the US and the UK. Fifty-one programs were evaluated across all studies. The examined programs were divided into 10 categories. Among them, 7 categories showed positive overall weighted outcomes, including tutoring interventions (ES=+0.24), cooperative learning (ES=+0.10), whole-school approaches (ES=+0.06), writing-focused approaches (ES=+0.13), content-focused approaches (ES=+0.08), strategy-focused instruction (ES=+0.09), and group/personalization rotation (ES=+0.09), whereas vocabulary-focused approaches, personalization approaches, and intensive group approaches demonstrated no statistically significant positive outcomes. Two cross-cutting factors, additional reading periods and technology applications, were also explored using random-effects models. The findings were as follows: No significant differences were found between studies providing extra reading...

18 06 2021
What works for struggling readers in elementary school?

Johns Hopkins University’s Center for Research and Reform in Education has conducted a meta-analysis on effective programs for struggling readers in elementary school, which recently appeared in Reading Research Quarterly. A total of 65 studies of 51 different programs were included in the review: 83% were randomized experiments and 17% quasi-experiments. The qualified studies were organized into five categories based on the RTI (Response to Intervention) framework, a categorization widely used in the U.S. RTI provides a means of categorizing reading interventions as prevention within the general education class (Tier 1), moderately intensive intervention (Tier 2), or intensive intervention (Tier 3). Results showed that: There were significant positive outcomes for tutoring programs (ES = +0.26) with larger effects for one-to-one tutoring (Tier 3, ES = +0.41) compared to one-to-small group tutoring (Tier 2, ES = +0.24). Multitiered whole-school approaches incorporating tutoring and whole-class approaches (Tier 1) had similar effects as tutoring programs, with...

03 06 2021
How effective is the Success for All program?

It is rare that one program deserves its own systematic review or has the breadth and depth of research to warrant it, but Success for All (SFA) is not a typical program. With over 30 years of operations and services provided in around 1,000 schools, SfA has earned the attention of researchers evaluating the program’s impact. A recent study by Cheung and colleagues gathered 17 studies from the United States (narrowed down from over 60 based on the studies’ inclusion criteria) to examine the overall and differential effects of SfA on student reading achievement, as well as the study features that moderate the effects of SfA on reading achievement. The Success for All program is a whole-school approach focused on early grades with continued support intended to last into later elementary grades. The program includes a phonemic awareness and phonics-centered curriculum and provides professional development for teachers led by SfA coaches, literacy...

03 06 2021