卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Primary School Education

Does learning about oral language improve student literacy?

There is an accepted relationship between students’ oral language skills and their ability to master literacy skills in schools. The importance of developing oral language skills in the early years is important so that students can fully engage with instruction. However, to develop those skills, teachers must understand this relationship and support the development of oral language in their classrooms. One proposed approach to this is through professional learning that helps teachers develop new knowledge and beliefs as well as new pedagogy to address oral language development. A recent study by Goldfeld and colleagues tested whether the Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL) intervention, a teacher professional learning program focused on oral language in kindergarten and first grade, improved student literacy outcomes at the end of first and third grade. The study was conducted in Australia, in government and Catholic schools. A total of 36 schools were randomly assigned to...

20 01 2023
Writing instruction designed for deaf learners

A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) by Wolbers and colleagues evaluated the effect of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) on writing outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. SIWI, developed specifically for deaf learners, explicitly teaches the writing process, provides interactive and co-constructed writing opportunities, and helps learners develop metalinguistic and linguistic skills. The RCT included students in grades 3 through 5 randomly assigned to the treatment (n=43) or business as usual control condition (n=36). Participants were students from different educational environments across the country, including self-contained or pullout classes in public schools or schools for the deaf. Teachers in the treatment condition administered the writing intervention 2 hours per week for nine weeks. The study found that the treatment students outperformed the control students on writing to recount (ES=+3.32) and writing information (ES=+1.12). Additionally, treatment students were assessed nine weeks after the intervention period had...

20 01 2023
Research of the feasibility and sustainability of school-based vision programs (SBVP)

Because of the lack of health care for children in eye care, school-based vision programs (SBVP) have been implemented in 20 states across the US. These programs involve bringing mobile clinics into schools and providing comprehensive eye exams to detect the uncorrected refractive error needs of students who have not passed vision screening, and at the end of the exam, parents receive a letter of feedback on the student’s results. The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical outcomes of an SBVP program in the Baltimore City Public Schools and the implications, and challenges faced. First, the screening results found that SBVP worked for children who failed screening questions in the first year of the Vision for Baltimore (V4B) program. By collecting refractive error profiles, it was found that those students who did not wear glasses had a more severe refractive error, and those who wore glasses and...

06 01 2023
Effects of apps on early math and reading

While thousands of educational apps are available to students, teachers, and parents, relevant research studies on their effectiveness are still limited. A meta-analysis by Kim and colleagues reviewed findings of 6 intervention studies and 285 effect sizes to figure out the effectiveness of educational apps for children in preschool to Grade 3. Results yielded a mean effect size of +0.31 in both math and literacy. Although outcomes varied across studies, results from this meta-analysis summarized the overall impact of educational apps and examined potential moderator effects.   Source (Open Access): Kim, J., Gilbert, J., Yu, Q., & Gale, C. (2021). Measures matter: A meta-analysis of the effects of educational apps on preschool to grade 3 children’s literacy and math skills. AERA Open, 7, 23328584211004184. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211004183… Read the rest

06 01 2023
Does an early algebra intervention have a sustained effect?

Most RCT studies stop at the post-test stage, without follow-up observations. Stephens and colleagues conducted a study to examine if an early algebra intervention influenced later learning. Participants were 1,455 students from 46 elementary schools. Seven hundred and sixteen students were from 23 treatment schools that used an early algebra intervention for 18 one-hour lessons per year from third through fifth grade during regular math class. The rest were from 23 control schools. All the students moved to a new middle school in grade 6. Students completed an 11-item written assessment before and after the intervention. Overall, the treatment group (M = 47.51% correct, SD = 21.54%) did better than the control group (M = 37.93% correct, SD = 19.74%) in the initial year of the intervention. However, the gap between the two groups narrowed from Grade 5 to Grade 6. Control students experienced an overall increase in performance from...

23 12 2022
One-to-one and small-group tutoring for reading. Which is more effective?

Reading Rescue is a tutoring program for students struggling to read in first grade. The program is implemented in one-to-one sessions, 30 minutes per day, by teaching assistants trained to deliver the program. Lessons include fluency building, daily assessments, phonics instruction, sentence writing, and vocabulary development. A version of Reading Rescue to be delivered to groups of three students was developed through a collaboration between researchers and practitioners to make the program more cost effective and to be able to help more students. The study investigated which version, one-to-one or small group, was more effective in enhancing students’ early literacy skills. First graders in two cohorts were randomly assigned to receive Reading Rescue either one-to-one (n=63) or in a small-group (n=96), or to a control group (n=91) who continued with teacher regular practice. Both one-to-one and small groups received a total of 50 sessions five times a week. Early literacy...

09 12 2022
explicit+ vocabulary intervention increases vocabulary learning of DHH children

Vocabulary, a predictor of literacy outcomes, is of great significance for all students. Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) students oftentimes lag behind their typically hearing (TH) peers in terms of acquiring vocabulary words appropriate for their age or grade level, which is a concern for many teachers of DHH students. Thus, many teachers adopt various interventions to facilitate DHH students’ vocabulary development. A recent study examined the effect of an intervention called “explicit +”, which demonstrates promising results. The study examined three types of vocabulary instruction: in-context, explicit, and explicit plus in-context (explicit +). During in-context instruction, teachers expose students to new words while reading books and in conversation. During explicit instruction, teachers provide more information about the new vocabulary and do activities that require the students to use the new words. Explicit + instruction is a combination of these two instructions. The researchers used a multiple baseline design including nine...

18 11 2022
Does an academic language curriculum improve elementary students’ reading skills?

A recent randomized evaluation funded by the Institute of Education Sciences investigated the effects of WordGen Elementary on students’ reading achievement. WordGen Elementary includes a curriculum with reading, writing, and speaking activities that aim to enhance students’ understanding and communication of academic language as well as improve their reading skills. The implementation of the program is supported by professional development for teachers. The study involved 55 elementary schools in five states with a high percentage of English learners. Students were randomly assigned to receive WordGen Elementary or to continue with their regular practice. Reading achievement was measured using the Core Academic Language Skills Instrument (CALS-I), Gates-MacGinitie reading test (GMRT), and state ELA test. Results after one year showed close to zero effects on CALS-I (ES = -0.06), GRMT (ES = -0.08), and the state ELA test (ES = -0.03) for both fourth and fifth graders. The study separately analyzed the...

04 11 2022
The effects of tutoring and family engagement on reading outcomes

A recent switched-replication randomized study by Jones and Li evaluated the effect of Future Forward on school attendance, social-emotional learning, and reading outcomes. Future Forward is a program that pairs paraprofessionals with early elementary students to provide one-on-one literacy tutoring for three 30-minute sessions per week. Additionally, a family engagement coordinator organizes events and communicates with families about student progress throughout the program. The study was conducted in three schools that partnered with their local Boys and Girls Club to implement the intervention. Study participants included students in kindergarten through grade 3. Participants were randomly assigned to receive the Future Forward intervention (n=65) or business as usual instruction (n=62). The intervention was implemented from October 2021 to January 2022, with the average student participating in 25.5 sessions, or 2.6 30-minute sessions per week. Additionally, on average, program staff engaged with families 1.5 times each month. The results indicated: Students in...

21 10 2022