卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Primary School Education

Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies. A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’...

13 01 2021
Effects of an SEL and literacy development program

Harvard University’s Stephanie Jones and colleagues examined 2-year experimental impacts of a school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development, called the 4Rs, on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The 4Rs program, an intervention unique in its integration of literacy practices and social-emotional skill-building, has two components: literacy-based curriculum delivery in social-emotional learning and teacher training. Subjects were from 18 public New York City inner-city elementary schools (n= 9 treatment schools and 9 Control schools; treatment students =630 students, control students =554 students). The treatment group received both components of the intervention from 3rd to 5th grade. Results suggested that: Children in the intervention schools showed improvements in several non-cognitive domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depression, teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior.While there were no main effects of the intervention on teacher reports of children’s academic skills, those who were at...

13 01 2021
Students’ emotional regulation also matters to homework completion and math achievement

Homework completion and achievement can be affected by how students handle their emotions. An article recently published in Contemporary Educational Psychology examined the reciprocal effects of emotional regulation, homework completion, and math achievement on each other using a longitudinal design. The study was conducted in four public schools in China, from which 1,480 8th graders participated. These schools were regular schools in contrast to key schools which select high-achieving students. When the study began, 69.4% of participating students did math homework four days or more in a week and, on average, spent 34.5 minutes on that per day. Students completed a questionnaire about homework emotion regulation, including emotion management and cognitive reappraisal and were assessed for their homework completion and math achievement first at the beginning of November and again seven and a half months later. Standardized tests guided by national math curriculum standards in China were used to access...

13 01 2021
How does students’ academic achievement relate to family socioeconomic status in China?

Academic achievement is thought to be influenced by family socioeconomic status (SES), but the relationship is also affected by government interventions. A meta-analysis recently published in Educational Psychology Review examined the relationship between family SES and academic achievement in China and whether year, grade level, type of SES measures, and subjects of academic achievement moderate that relationship. The analysis was based on data drawn from 215,649 students in 62 studies (78 independent samples). Studies included in the search process were those conducted from January 1979 to May 2017 written in English or Chinese. To be included in the analysis, studies needed to be focused on the relation between SES and academic achievement, contain sufficient statistical detail, and be carried out on students from kindergarten to senior high school in China. The meta-analysis excluded any duplicated data and studies containing obvious errors or insufficient information. The key findings were: SES is...

30 12 2020
Supporting model-based explanations in the elementary science classroom

Zangori, Vo and colleagues explored the practice of modelling as a tool for visualization and reasoning in the elementary science classroom. A study, published by International Journal of Science Education, is part of a five-year research project in the United States, Modelling Hydrologic Systems in Elementary Science (MoHSES), aimed to support 3rd grade teachers in model-based teaching and engage students in generating model-based explanations (MBE). Through curricular and instructional support, MBE were used to encourage students’ understanding of water systems, a global phenomenon comprised of smaller, hard-to-observe components that prove challenging for learners of all ages. A quasi-experimental comparative design was employed to evaluate a baseline curricular intervention (Year 1) and a modelling-enhanced curricular intervention (Year 2) in five 3rd-grade classrooms from the same US Midwestern state. Teachers implementing the intervention were chosen based on their use of the FOSS Water module curriculum and their wide range of teaching experience. During the...

30 12 2020
The relationship of bilingualism and cognitive advantage

Compared to monolingual people, bilingual people are generally considered to have a cognitive advantage related to executive function (EF). A recent meta-analysis conducted by Gunnerud and colleagues investigated whether bilingual children had an advantage in EF by examining different components of inhibition, switching, attention, monitoring, working memory, and planning. 100 publications (between 1980 to 2017) were identified, which included 143 group comparisons and 583 effect sizes. The bilingual advantage was statistically significant in overall EF (ES=+0.06). The study further performed a moderator analysis to investigate whether a cognitive advantage could occur under certain conditions. Regarding sample characteristics, the results showed that: Socioeconomic status (SES) difference was a significant moderator variable, and middle-class SES children had a greater bilingual advantage than lower-class children (β=0.235; p =.017) and upper-middle-class children (β=0.230; p =.046). Also, results from one lab showed a significantly larger effect than the studies from other labs (β=0.153; p =.011). In terms...

30 12 2020
Open Science Comes to Meta-Analysis

Recently, a growing interest in transparency and reproducibility has led researchers and journals to lean more intently into the shift towards open science. This shift has been spurred by both the replication crisis in the social sciences and medicine, although meta-analysis has been relatively slow on the uptake. In a recent meta-review, Polanin and colleagues randomly selected 150 meta-analyses from the Psychological Bulletin and coded them for criteria that would facilitate reproduction of results. The authors contend that high visibility of data and methodology is important for three primary reasons: to support peer reviewers to check author analyses or run additional analyses on their own, to facilitate future meta-analysts to replicate or update the review with new studies or new statistical methods, and to allow for meta-reviews that may simply summarize the existing meta-analyses, or seek to examine the results from a substantively different angle (e.g. breaking up the results by grade level)....

30 12 2020
Private tutoring in China – Is it effective?

Private tutoring, which aims at enhancing student learning and achievement, has become a popular approach in education, especially in East Asia. According to the Chinese Society of Education, 137 million primary and middle school students were enrolled in after-school private tutoring in 2016. A recent study published in Children and Youth Services Review examined the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement, as well as emotional well-being and parent-child relationships, in Chinese junior high school students.  This study's data were from the 2014-15 cohort of the China Education Panel Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of junior high school students in China. A total of 9,449 junior high school students from 112 schools in mainland China participated in this cohort study. Students were asked whether they received private tutoring in either Chinese, English, or Mathematics and assessed their self-confidence, parent-child relationship, and depression. Students' midterm test scores in Chinese, English...

16 12 2020
Effects of an extracurricular science program on science understanding and motivation

"Young Researchers–We Work Like Scientists" is a short-term science program for elementary school students aimed at promoting the understanding of science and students' motivation. The intervention is part of a larger program used in Germany with talented elementary school students. It consists of 10 extracurricular lessons during which students are provided with challenging problem-solving activities and inquiry tasks. A study published by the Journal of Educational Psychology evaluated the effectiveness of this program with 310 third- and fourth-grade students in German schools who received the 10 lessons once a week for 90 minutes. The authors used measures closely aligned with the program curriculum to assess inquiry competencies as well as measures made by other researchers to assess student understanding of science and student motivation. Results of the study showed that: There were significantly higher inquiry competencies for the intervention students on a measure aligned with the program and made by the authors. No...

16 12 2020