卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Primary School Education

The importance of monitoring the success of an intervention program

Although integrating technology into education has been found to be effective means in helping students, it may fail to produce impacts because of poor implementation. A recent cluster-random controlled trial study conducted by Mo and colleagues investigated the effect of a computer-assisted learning (CAL) program on English achievement and compared the differences in implementation of the program between institutions. The CAL program was designed to provide remedial tutoring for learning English during computer class sessions organized by a computer teacher. A balanced cohort of 120 primary schools in one of China's poorest provinces was randomized into three groups: CAL implemented by a government agency, the same program implemented by a non-government organization (NGO), and no CAL program (control schools). A total of 5,253 Grade 4 students completed the program. Both treatment groups adopted the same software packages for the tutoring, and both the government agency and the NGO conducted implementation,...

15 10 2021
Effectiveness of instructional coaching on student academic engagement

A recent randomized evaluation conducted by researchers at Rutgers University investigated the effects of Classroom Strategies Coaching Mode (CSC) on teacher outcomes and student engagement. CSC is a coaching program for teachers with the aim to increase the use of evidence-based practices in teaching and classroom management. After the identification of practice needs the coaches provide teachers with formative assessments and feedback to support implementation of practices useful to respond to their needs. The study involved 106 elementary school teachers in 14 high-poverty schools in United States. Teachers were randomly assigned to receive the intervention over 12 weeks or to a waiting list. The authors evaluated the effects of CSC on teacher outcomes, quality of instruction, and behavioral management strategies. This summary does not report teacher outcomes because they were evaluated using measures made by the researchers, which can lead to inflated results. However, student engagement in academic activities is...

15 10 2021
Effects of SWPBS Undetectable in the Long-Term

Interventions that focus on the reduction of problem behaviors and support of emotional well-being and social relationships have become increasingly popular around the globe over the past two decades. One such program, School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) has a solid base of evidence for improving social, emotional, and academic outcomes in the short-term. However, there is still little evidence regarding the long-term effects of this popular intervention. Borgen and colleagues examined the long-term effects of SWPBS on students’ academic failure and marginalization. Specifically, they examined short-term test scores and long-term academic grades, high school dropout, school behavior, and youth crime using population-wide Norwegian register data (N = 964,924). All Norwegian primary schools (grades 1–7) were included in the study (N = 2,366), where 216 of the schools in our sample (9%) had implemented SWPBS. The authors compared these individual-level variables between students who had attended SWPBS schools with those...

15 10 2021
Early childhood science experiences and later science achievement

While much attention centers around the impact of science instruction on achievement in middle and high school, less research focuses on early elementary exposure to inquiry science and its long-term impact on academic outcomes. As such, Kaderavek and colleagues at the University of Toledo embarked on a longitudinal investigation of one science framework-aligned intervention targeted towards students in grades 1-3. The NURTURES program covers two distinct aspects of a child’s early science experience: classroom-based science inquiry instruction and informal science practice at home. NURTURES teachers take part in a summer institute as well as academic-year professional development to better facilitate inquiry-based science practice and discussion with students. Additionally, to engage students’ families, NURTURES teachers give grade-specific family packs to students four times throughout the academic year. These packs further develop students’ use of science practices (such as hypothesis forming, experimental design, and data collection) while at home.  As a final...

01 10 2021
The importance of parental involvement in enhancing children’s literacy level

Children’s home reading under parental supervision can supplement in-class reading. A paper published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness investigated the effects of a one-year parental involvement intervention on the development of primary school children’s reading skills. The researchers adopted school-level cluster randomization and recruited 600 grade 2 students from Tanzania (12 experimental schools, 264 students; 12 control schools, 336 students). Groups were similar in terms of child’s gender, parent’s gender, parental educational level, and parental income. The intervention incorporated four parts: training sessions for teachers and parents; parents’ and children’s shared reading at home; partnership between parents and teachers; and parental involvement in children’s homework. Outcomes of interest included three dimensions of reading achievement: word decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results showed significant enhancement in word decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension at the end of the one-year intervention. A follow-up assessment 8 months after the...

01 10 2021
The effect of pairs one-on-one tutoring on early grade literacy

SPARK (now renamed Future Forward), developed by the Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee (BGCGM) in 2005, is an early grade literacy intervention for students in high-poverty schools. As a school-community-family partnership strategy, this program seeks to improve K-3 students’ literacy skills through in-school one-on-one tutoring provided by AmeriCorps volunteers or college students with family engagement. Jones and Christian evaluated the effect of SPARK in 7 public schools in Milwaukee serving primarily low-income students of color. They randomly assigned 576 participating students in grades K-2 into either the intervention or the comparison groups. Most students were African American (79.7 %), and 95.3% qualified for free or reduced-price lunch. For those eligible to participate, most of them (85%) were not proficient in reading at baseline. After 2 years of implementation, the results indicated that: SPARK was found to have significantly positive effect on foundational literacy skills (PALS: ES = +0.23)...

01 10 2021
Order of instruction

A recent meta-analysis performed by Sinha and Kapur utilized 53 studies from around the world comparing the order of instruction for a range of learners, primarily focused on 2nd graders through undergraduate students.  The focus of the meta-analysis was to investigate outcomes for students exposed to learning that introduces problem solving prior to instruction (PS-I) compared with students exposed to learning that introduces instruction prior to problem solving (I-PS).  Arguments in favor of PS-I designs emphasize the acquisition of higher-order thinking skills developed by allowing students to grapple with concepts they have not yet formally studied, while arguments supporting I-PS designs suggest that direct instruction is needed to enable students to focus on the most important aspects of the material.  Within the broader category of PS-I designs, the authors focused on the effects of productive failure (PF), where the problem-solving portion of the lesson is specifically designed to result in...

17 09 2021
Is nutrition education enough to help students choose healthier lunch options and reduce plate waste?

To nourish children so that learning can happen, federal lunch programs offer meals to students across the country every single day. However, many students remain deficient in their food consumption patterns and end up wasting mass quantities of these subsidized meals. Serebrennikov and colleagues of Purdue University sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a classroom intervention aimed at bolstering healthy food selection and reducing plate waste in school lunch rooms. The nutrition education intervention aims to improve student knowledge surrounding the benefits of fruit and vegetable intake. Through bi-weekly lessons that run 15 minutes each, students are guided through activities aligned with science and health teaching standards that help to define healthy eating, why it’s important, and how to do it. Through a randomized control trial implemented in ten second grade classes from three public schools in a Midwestern state, 62 students (5 classes) who received the nutrition education intervention...

17 09 2021
Does technology help students build English vocabulary?

Computer or mobile-based English enhancement programs are gaining popularity among English language learners around the world. A recent publication in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness investigated the effects of these technology-assisted interventions on expanding English language learners’ vocabulary. The paper synthesized studies conducted between 2012 to 2018. Eligible studies followed treatment-control experimental designs, targeted pre-school to college-aged students who learned English as a foreign language, and reported vocabulary-related learning outcomes. Researchers identified 45 studies that met these inclusion criteria. Compared with traditional instructional methods, technology-supported English learning programs were conducive for building vocabulary (ES = +0.85, p < .05). Detailed analysis revealed that mobile-assisted vocabulary learning (ES = +1.09, p < .05) was more effective than computer-assisted learning (ES = +0.63, p < .05). Contrary to common assumptions, technology without gamification (ES = +0.90, p < .05) was more effective than game-based technology (ES = +0.49, p <...

17 09 2021