卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Do home visits help? Impacts of home visits in the District of Columbia Public Schools

Parent engagement plays an important role in student outcomes. Prior research shows that higher parent engagement is associated with better student outcomes such as higher attendance rates. Recent years have witnessed a growing number of programs intended to improve parent engagement. Yet, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of these programs. A recent study by the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic examined the impacts of home visits conducted by trained teachers on the outcomes of students in grades 1-5 (N = 3,996) in the District of Columbia Public Schools. Teachers and families could choose to participate or not in the home visits. Teachers received a 2-3 hour training, at which time they could begin home visits with families. Home visits took place either over the summer or during the school year. The visits typically last for 30 minutes, during which teachers and parents discuss parents’ expectations for their child’s education...

02 05 2022
Investigating strategies to increase teachers’ adherence to evidence-based social-emotional behaviour practices: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature

A recent study published in the Journal of School Psychology examined the use of implementation strategies to promote teachers’ adherence to evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting student social, emotional and behavioral (SEB) outcomes. After evaluating 28 articles and 122 effect sizes with a total of 15 unique implementation strategies, results indicated that, on average, implementation strategies were associated with improved adherence to SEB EBPs (g = 2.32, tau = 0.77) with moderate to large effect sizes. This is an important finding given the established link between fidelity and student outcomes. Implementation strategies targeting individual-level determinants (i.e., adherence) were most often delivered during the active implementation stage and most frequently involved the use of performance-based feedback. Moderator analysis indicated that larger effects were associated with implementation strategies that used a greater number of unique behavior change techniques (BCTs) (p < .001). BCTs included strategies such as directed practice, positive reinforcement, and adapting...

01 04 2022
Online tutoring? You get what you pay for

In-person and high-dosage tutoring is gaining popularity among practitioners as an evidence-based approach to accelerate learning in the post-pandemic education system. Facing the challenge of insufficient funding and lack of local tutors to provide in-person tutoring, some practitioners regard online tutoring as an alternative outlet. However, there is limited research to establish the effectiveness of online tutoring programs. To investigate this topic of increasing interest, Dr. Kraft and his colleagues conducted a pilot study and found answers align with conventional wisdom. This pilot study recruited 230 volunteer college student tutors from 47 highly selective universities to deliver one-to-one online tutoring using Zoom. All tutors participated in a three-hour training session before the intervention and weekly peer-mentoring sessions during the intervention. The 560 participants were 6th-8th grade students from Chicago. Almost all of them come from low-income households. The study randomly assigned students to treatment condition or control condition within each...

01 04 2022
Are only-children always better in academic performance?

In the aftermath of the one-child policy in China (1979-2016) having been implemented over 30 years, some researchers found that only-children performed better academically. While most of these studies focused on only-children in urban China, Shi and colleagues conducted a study to investigate the sibling effect on rural children’s academic outcomes. Conversely to an urban area, families in rural China tend to have more children than their urban counterparts. Moreover, along with the national one-child policy, the “One-Son-Two-Kids” rule allowed rural couples to have a second child if the first one was a girl, due to cultural preference to have a son in the family. Families with one child only, therefore, were not common in rural areas. The study was conducted in 2018. After a recruiting process, 156 grade 9 only-children from 102 classes were identified. For each only-child, one peer with sibling(s) was randomly selected from the same class....

25 03 2022
Understanding the dynamics of dosage response on reading interventions

A recent meta-analysis published in the Review of Educational Research intends to identify and understand the intervention characteristics associated with the largest reading effect sizes. To support students’ reading outcomes, current models of intervention delivery have utilized multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS), also referred to as Response to Intervention (RtI). Within current MTSS and RtI frameworks, intervention levels are organized around three tiers. Tier 1 consists of delivering general education classroom instruction. Tier 2 consists of small group or 1:1 tutoring. Tier 3 consists of 1:1 instruction, with higher dosage and personalization. However, despite the promise of early reading interventions, about 18% to 55% of K–3 students with reading disabilities (SWRD) under Tier 2 intervention have continued to struggle in reading. Therefore, it remains critical to better understand how and when to intensify reading interventions. Since linear models in intervention research and meta-analyses have been unable to substantiate the claim...

25 03 2022
Does one more year in kindergarten matter?

In 2009, the China Development Research Foundation of the State Council launched the One Village One Preschool (OVOP) initiative which aims to guarantee free early childhood education (ECE) access to all young children in China. According to statistics in 2017, almost all children (98%) in urban areas have access to ECE while only 30% of children from poor and rural areas have the access. OVOP is a variously sourced funded program that encompasses facilities, teaching components, and policy and organizational operations, through which children of a village can access preschool education without spending hours of commuting time.  Using students’ data during the years 2015 to 2018 from Songtao county in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, Chen and colleagues explored the effect of an ECE education experience on academic performance in grade 1 to grade 4.  Five types of ECE education experiences were compared: Township public ECE centres:...

11 03 2022
Smartphone and tablet use in early childhood

A recent meta-analysis conducted by Mallawaarachchi and colleagues analyzed studies focused on the association of smartphone and tablet usage with psychosocial, cognitive, and sleep-related developmental factors in early childhood. The meta-analysis was conducted on 19 articles from a variety of countries. The mean ages for the children in these studies ranged from 1.43 years to 5.42 years. The overall findings of the meta-analysis suggest there is a weak, negative association (r = −.08, p = .001) between smartphone or tablet usage and child-specific factors. However, when individually analyzing these child-specific factors, most do not demonstrate significant associations with smartphone or tablet usage. Following factors show non-significant associations with smartphone or tablet usage: Psychosocial factors (r = −.07, p = .115) Self-regulation (r = −.03, p = .65) Cognitive factors (r = −.07, p = .14) Language development (r = −.09, p = .09) Executive function (r = −.09, p =...

11 03 2022
Parent engagement in science education: the more the merrier?

Parents are the first teachers of their children. The success of school education needs parental engagement. However, there is a cost to everything. What are the costs of encouraging more parental involvement in children’s science education? Robinson and her colleagues used a randomized field experiment to examine the effects of a text-messaging intervention in science education and identified opportunity costs of shifting parental effort from other subjects to science. The study took place in England. Grades 7-11 students from 5 secondary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment condition (n = 1,729) or the control condition (n = 1,754). Pre-treatment covariates showed no statistically significant differences between conditions. Through a pre-existing texting platform, parents of students in the treatment condition received around two text messages per week nudging them to ask students specific questions tied to their science curriculum. All else equal, parents in the control condition did not receive...

25 02 2022
Is the extent of self-overestimation different between Chinese and Dutch children?

In the past few decades, there have been multiple studies showing that children often feel overconfident about their own competencies regarding handling new tasks and challenges. A recent study published in Child Development investigated the extent of self-overestimation among youngsters growing up in China and children in the Netherlands. Using both a memory task and a motor task, the researchers tracked the discrepancies between students’ estimated and actual performance across task trials. Two psychological explanations were explored: monitoring deficiency: young children are not yet capable of reliably monitoring and retaining information about their abilities and past performances. wishful thinking: young children often fail to reliably distinguish between their wishes and their expectations. Participants were children around aged 4 to 5. The study analyzed data from about 100 Chinese children from an urban area (Wenzhou City) and about 91 to 94 children from the Netherlands.  Children estimated the distance regarding ball...

25 02 2022