卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

How does students’ academic achievement relate to family socioeconomic status in China?

Academic achievement is thought to be influenced by family socioeconomic status (SES), but the relationship is also affected by government interventions. A meta-analysis recently published in Educational Psychology Review examined the relationship between family SES and academic achievement in China and whether year, grade level, type of SES measures, and subjects of academic achievement moderate that relationship. The analysis was based on data drawn from 215,649 students in 62 studies (78 independent samples). Studies included in the search process were those conducted from January 1979 to May 2017 written in English or Chinese. To be included in the analysis, studies needed to be focused on the relation between SES and academic achievement, contain sufficient statistical detail, and be carried out on students from kindergarten to senior high school in China. The meta-analysis excluded any duplicated data and studies containing obvious errors or insufficient information. The key findings were: SES is...

30 12 2020
Open Science Comes to Meta-Analysis

Recently, a growing interest in transparency and reproducibility has led researchers and journals to lean more intently into the shift towards open science. This shift has been spurred by both the replication crisis in the social sciences and medicine, although meta-analysis has been relatively slow on the uptake. In a recent meta-review, Polanin and colleagues randomly selected 150 meta-analyses from the Psychological Bulletin and coded them for criteria that would facilitate reproduction of results. The authors contend that high visibility of data and methodology is important for three primary reasons: to support peer reviewers to check author analyses or run additional analyses on their own, to facilitate future meta-analysts to replicate or update the review with new studies or new statistical methods, and to allow for meta-reviews that may simply summarize the existing meta-analyses, or seek to examine the results from a substantively different angle (e.g. breaking up the results by grade level)....

30 12 2020
The power of texting: combating student absenteeism

With the prevalence of smartphones, text messaging has become a promising tool for connecting schools with parents more closely. A recent paper by the Institute of Education Sciences investigated the effects of an adaptive text messaging strategy on chronic absenteeism. The authors confirmed the potential of text messaging by demonstrating how it decreased chronic absence rates for all students by 2.4% to 3.6%. Using a randomized controlled trial, the study experimented with four versions of adaptive text messaging among 26,000 elementary school students. During the fall semester, groups one and two received messages about the benefits of attendance while groups three and four received messages about the consequences of absenteeism. During the spring semester, chronically absent students in groups one and three received extra personalized outreach messages from school staff but those in groups two and four received extra goal commitment messages. Goal commitment messages asked parents to set attendance goals for...

16 12 2020
How does teachers’ emotional labor relate to burnout and satisfaction?

Teaching is an emotional endeavor as teachers are expected to maintain proper emotional expression in their work. However, in some cases, emotional job demands can also be rewarding, depending on how one uses appropriate emotional labor strategies, including surface acting, deep acting, and expression of naturally felt emotion, one used. A metanalysis published in Educational Research Review comprehensively examined the relationship between teachers' use of emotional labor strategies and their antecedents (in terms of job characteristics and individual characteristics) and consequences (in terms of burnout and job satisfaction). To be included in the analysis, studies had to be quantitative studies written in English, conducted in a school setting using pure samples of school teachers, and reporting at least one correlation coefficient. 86 independent samples from 85 articles were included in the analysis, comprised of 33,248 teachers in total. The analysis demonstrated that emotional labor strategies were significantly related to burnout...

02 12 2020
Predictors of teacher turnover

A recently published meta-analysis of 120 studies about the predictors of teacher turnover confirms the influence of teachers' personal background and school working conditions. Teachers over 28 years old (odds ratio, OR = +0.70), Hispanic teachers (OR = +0.47), and traditional in certified teachers (OR = +0.53) are all less likely to leave. Teachers at schools with evaluation or merit pay systems (OR = +0.95, +0.78) or better working environments (OR = +0.56) are also less likely to leave. To prior reviews and frameworks of teacher turnover, this study adds a look at accountability and policy impacts (e.g., merit pay). Additionally, its findings imply changes in the labor market from prior reviews – such as the now null impact of teacher gender, Black race/ethnicity, and advanced degree, and school demographic makeup. Notable limitations, as acknowledged by the authors, include the limited number of studies of certain predictors (e.g. 1 study about retention...

02 12 2020
Teacher training routes lead to different outcomes

A study by the UK's Institute for Fiscal Studies examines the different costs, and likely outcomes, of various routes into teaching. In England there is a policy of increased school-led initial teacher training, moving away from traditional training in higher education (HE). Although the postgraduate HE route is still the most popular (approximately 40% of trainees each year), school-led approaches such as School Direct, which employs prospective teachers as they learn on the job (more than 30%), and Teach First, the UK version of Teach for America  (5%), are growing. The study used data from the School Workforce Census, an annual record of the school workforce in state-funded schools in England, between 2010 and 2014. This allowed the researchers to track the progress of early career trainees. The key findings from the report included: Five-year retention rates for elementary school trainees in state-funded education vary from 58% to 68%, with School...

02 12 2020
How can education technology enhance learning outcomes?

As the COVID-19 pandemic forces schools to turn to remote teaching, education technology is being regarded as a promising tool to maintain education quality despite school closures, and this is adding to interest in educational technology in general. However, learning scientists often argue against computers’ benefits for students by saying that computers are “oversold and underused.” Focusing on developed countries, researchers from the Abdul Latif Jamel Action Lab (J-PAL) presented a systematic review to evaluate education technology and its promise. J-PAL’s review solely included studies with large samples and rigorous causal designs to ensure review quality. In total, 126 randomized controlled trials and regression discontinuity designs were included. Major findings were: Equipping students with a computer and internet access yielded mixed results. At the K-12 level, computer distribution generally had no effects on academic outcomes. Computer-assisted learning programs were effective in mathematics but not in reading. Customized learning experiences was one reason...

18 11 2020
Is teacher leadership related to students’ outcomes?

Teacher leaders are teachers who influence colleagues, principals, and other school members in an effort to improve teaching and learning practices as well as student outcomes and educational experiences. Moreover, teacher leadership is a process to facilitate whole school change and to promote professional learning and shared decision making. A meta-analysis by Shen et al. (2020) synthesized studies on the relationship between teacher leadership and student academic achievement. The review included 21 studies carried out in the United States and found a small, positive correlation between teacher leadership and student academic achievement (r = .187). The details of findings were as follows: Considering the seven dimensions of teacher leadership – categorized by the authors based on the literature – the dimension of “facilitating improvements in curriculum, instruction, and assessment” (r = .21) and “promoting teacher professional development” (r = .19) have the strongest relationship with student academic achievement. The authors also...

04 11 2020
Are low-performing schools curable?

As a result of federal educational policy, four common responses to address low-performing schools have included turnaround (drastically improving the schools), labeling (motivating schools through public performance-related labels), closure (shutting down the schools), and charter conversion (changing the school to a charter school). However, opponents of these school improvement efforts often argue that they are not very effective. A recent paper adopted meta-analysis to investigate the effects of these school improvement approaches in K-12 U.S. schools. Researchers from University of Virginia, Harvard University, and Education Trust conducted a thorough literature search, which returned 67 eligible studies of a variety of school improvement policy efforts. Their results suggested that: On average, investing in improving low-performing schools has a significant moderate effect on standardized measures of math (ES=+0.06) and a small, non-significant effect on standardized measures of English Language Arts (ES=+0.02).  On low-stakes tests, moderate impacts were identified on STEM (ES=+0.07), and humanities (ES=+0.08)....

04 11 2020