卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Preschool teachers’ personality and their beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices

A recent study published in the Frontiers in Psychology examined how teachers’ beliefs and practices were related to their personality in preschool settings. Among a sample of 544 preschool teachers in Hong Kong, which included pre-service and in-service teachers, Wong (2019) used questionnaires to examine how teachers’ beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices were related to their personality. The questionnaire included the Myer–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is a personality inventory that measures four dimensions of personality, namely “Extroversion-Introversion,” “Sensing-Intuition,” “Thinking-Feeling” and “Judging-Perceiving.” Moreover, the Teacher Beliefs and Practices Survey was used to measure teachers’ beliefs and their instructional activities about developmentally appropriate practices. The findings were as follows: The predominant personality type profiles of preschool teachers were ” Sensing-Feeling-Judging”. The in-service teachers in the sample were characterized by the dominance of sensing (86.7%), feeling (64.0%), and judging (83.4%). Extroverted and intuitive teachers tended to hold stronger beliefs in developmentally appropriate...

25 02 2020
How to make a systematic review’s meta-analysis high quality

Terri Piggott at Loyola University Chicago and Joshua Polanin at AIR have published a Methodological Guidance Paper: High-Quality Meta-Analysis in a Systematic Review , now appearing on RER’s Online First website. A meta-analysis synthesizes the quantitative findings of many studies on a given topic. The guidance paper outlines the characteristics that make a meta-analysis in a systematic review high quality, discussing unbiased screening and coding procedures, establishing a protocol for carrying out a review, and then discussing in depth the best practices for computing effect sizes and reporting the data. The authors conclude that “the role of researchers using systematic review and meta-analysis is to produce both high-quality analyses and to interpret those results in ways accessible to a wide audience. A high-quality systematic review and meta-analysis is difficult and time-consuming to produce; it is worth the effort to ensure that the results inform future research and policymaking through clear discussion of...

25 02 2020
Examining teachers’ response to chaos in the classroom

An article co-authored by Johns Hopkins School of Education’s Lieny Jeon reports that teachers need emotional support to manage chaotic classrooms. The finding comes from a study Jeon and her colleagues conducted that examined the role of teachers’ emotional abilities and classroom environments in how teachers respond to children’s negative emotions and disruptive behavior. The researchers sampled 1,129 teachers working with preschoolers in child-care centers or public pre-K programs across the U.S. Using a survey, the teachers were asked to rate their perceptions of environmental chaos and their responsiveness to children in early childcare settings. The researchers found that Childcare chaos (e.g., crowdedness, unpredictability, and lack of routines and rules) was directly associated with teachers’ non-supportive reactions (e.g., distress reactions and punitive reactions) after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic childcare settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn was associated with...

12 02 2020
Evaluation of support for using student data to aid teaching

A report from the Institute of Education Sciences has found that an intensive approach to providing support for using student data to inform teaching did not improve student achievement, perhaps because the approach did not change teachers’ use of data or their reported classroom practices. For the study, researchers recruited 102 elementary schools from 12 U.S. districts. Schools were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. Treatment schools received funding for a half-time data coach of their choosing, as well as intensive professional development for coaches and school leaders on helping teachers use student data to inform their teaching. The control schools received no additional funding for a data coach or professional development. Impacts on teacher and student outcomes were measured after a 1.5 year implementation period. The results suggest that : Despite the additional resources, teachers in the treatment schools did not increase how often they used data...

29 01 2020
Suspending suspensions

In irony worthy of Shakespeare, out-of-school suspensions have typically been used as punishment for students who are truant (absent from school without parental consent) or chronically absent (missing 10% or more of school days). Given that the goal is to keep students in school and academically engaged, a few states have banned this practice. A recent JESPAR article examined the effects of this ban on absence rates in Arkansas, which established a law in 2013 banning out-of-school suspensions. The state offered no training to schools, and each was left to make its own way with the policy change. Although out-of-school suspensions were banned, other punishments were allowed to continue, including in-school suspension, which takes a student out of the regular classroom for a time but allows them to continue their work elsewhere. Using data from all K-12 Arkansas public schools, researchers compared the attendance of truant and non-truant students between 2012–13 (pre-policy) and 2013–14 (post-policy) to...

29 01 2020
Do private schools give students an educational advantage? A study from England

Researchers at the Institute of Education at University College London have conducted a study that looks at whether there are any educational advantages to attending private schools in the upper secondary years (Grades 11 and 12). Published in the Oxford Review of Education, the study used data from the Centre for Longitudinal Studies’ Next Steps cohort study and linked this to national student achievement information between 2005 and 2009. The researchers followed a sample of 5,852 students who attended a private or state school while doing their A levels (high-stakes exams taken at the end of Grade 12, and important for university admission). The findings were: The profiles of the two groups of students were very different – students arrived in private school sixth forms with significantly higher prior attainment in GCSEs (exams taken at the end of 10thgrade), and from households that had twice the income of families whose children attended state...

15 01 2020
Texting parents helped with early literacy

A study of a program that sent literacy-related advice via text messages to parents of preschool children showed that it improved both the parents’ literacy behavior and the children’s early literacy. READY4K! is an eight-month-long text messaging program for parents of preschool children. Parents receive texts that cover literacy skills, encourage them to participate, and provide follow-up tips. In the study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, 519 parents in California were randomly assigned to receive the program or a series of “placebo” texts (e.g., about school enrollment) during the 2013-14 school year. The results indicated: The texts increased the frequency with which parents read books to children and other literacy activities (effects up to 0.35 standard deviations higher). According to teachers, texted parents asked more questions about their child’s learning (up to 0.19 standard deviations higher) than placebo parents, and their children performed better on early measures of literacy...

30 12 2019
Examining the evidence on Learning Accounts

Social Programs That Work has released a new evidence summary on Learning Accounts, a demonstration program in New Brunswick, Canada that provided up to approximately $8,400 in conditional financial aid for post-secondary education to low-income 10th grade students. The students had to meet certain benchmarks (i.e., completion of 10th, 11th, and 12th grade) to receive the funding. The program was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 1,145 low-income 10th graders in 30 high schools in New Brunswick, Canada. Within each school, the low-income students were randomly assigned to a group that was offered participation in the Learning Accounts program, or to a control group that received usual school services. Survey data was used to measure high school graduation rates, and administrative data was used to examine later graduation from college. According to the evidence report, over the 10 years following random assignment, the program produced a 6.5 percentage...

18 12 2019
Does enhancing teacher expectation benefit students?

Teachers’ expectations are believed to affect students, but teacher expectation intervention studies that compare an intervention group to a control group are rare. A recent study published in Learning and Individual Differences investigated the effects of an intervention in China that enhanced teachers’ behaviour of conveying high expectations to students. The study randomly selected two schools in the urban area of a city in south China. Four Grade 8 English teachers in each school were randomly chosen and evenly allocated to either the intervention or control group. While the control group teachers did not receive training, the intervention group teachers were provided with training workshops focusing on three strands of high expectation behaviour, namely, giving students challenging tasks, providing affirmation or suggestions to students about their performance, and enhancing how teachers impart personal regard to students.  Teachers were asked to estimate the final exam score they believed each student would achieve for...

04 12 2019