卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Student motivation and school reform

The Center on Education Policy in the US offers a series of papers that examines topics related to students’ academic motivation. The summary paper, Student Motivation: An Overlooked Piece of School Reform, pulls together findings from a wide array of studies by scholars in a range of disciplines, as well as lessons from programs intended to increase motivation. Topics include: why motivation is important and how it might be defined and measured; whether rewarding students can result in higher motivation; whether students can be motivated by goal-setting; the role of parental involvement, family background, and culture; strategies schools might use to motivate students; and non-traditional approaches to motivating otherwise unenthusiastic students. A few of many suggestions that the authors offer for schools to consider are: Programs that reward academic accomplishments are most effective when they reward students for mastering certain skills or increasing their understanding rather than rewarding them for reaching a performance...

29 07 2020
Future teachers benefit from classroom management coaching

A recent study examined the effects of coaching on developing preservice teachers’ classroom management skills . Subjects were student teachers learning the Responsive Classroom framework in their program and discussing its techniques in a classroom management course during the Spring, 2018 semester.  While interacting with a computer-simulated classroom containing misbehaving avatar students, 105 teaching majors were randomly assigned  to receive either “bug-in-the-ear plus coaching” (BIC+C), which was word-for-word coaching via earpiece, 5 minutes of feedback, and a chance to re-do the simulation (n=38); “coaching only,” (CO) which was the same but without earpiece coaching (n=34); or “self-reflection,” spending 5 minutes reflecting after the interaction in lieu of coaching (n=33). During the simulations, which occurred at baseline and then 3 times during the semester, subjects were instructed to apply Responsive Classroom’s “effective redirections” techniques to re-direct disruptive avatars, with their responses recorded using a rubric based on Responsive Classroom strategies. At baseline,...

15 07 2020
Virtual charter schools’ consistent and persistent negative impacts

As COVID-19 pushes more schools online, the call for evidence of online learning is at a premium. Virtual charter schools are one recent innovation claiming to utilize technology for more individualized and flexible learning. However, a recent article published in Educational Researcher from Fitzpatrick and colleagues used a robust quasi-experimental approach to confirm prior negative effects of the virtual charter model as a whole. Fitzpatrick and colleagues looked at state-wide end-of-year test results from Indiana in grades 3-8, including data from students in four virtual charter schools and 67 in-person (“bricks and mortar”) charter schools. The researchers set up a comparison group by matching students who transferred into a virtual charter school to a similar student in a traditional public school. They also looked at how virtual students compared to students who transferred into the more typical, in-person charter school. Results show that: Virtual charters schools negatively affected student achievement. This effect grew...

15 07 2020
Improving the quality of meta-analyses

Encouraging educators and policymakers to use evidence to guide their decisions relies on high-quality evidence.  A recent paper by Pigott and Polanin, published in Review of Educational Research, has identified guidelines for modern, rigorous systematic reviews including meta-analyses. The guidelines are organized into three sections: elements for the systematic review, practices for the statistical synthesis of findings (meta-analysis), and presentation of the methods and results.  When conducting the actual systematic review, researchers should ensure that they have clearly specified procedures, documented in advance, that identify what question they hope to answer, where and how they are searching for studies, and a process for screening, reviewing, and extracting information from those studies.  These procedures should be made publicly available. When conducting the actual meta-analysis, researchers should utilize the most up-to-date methods, such as strategies to handle multiple outcomes from a single study, adequately addressing missing data, and explore variation in impacts.  This helps to answer...

15 07 2020
COVID-19 academic losses: Predictions and recommendations

More than 55 million students in the U.S. are not in school due to COVID-19, and many won’t return until fall. Knowing what academic losses to expect can help teachers and administrators better plan for students’ return. Using summer learning loss data as a reference, The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) has released a report, The COVID-19 slide: What summer learning loss can tell us about the potential impact of school closures on student academic achievement.   Megan Kuhfeld and Beth Tarasawa at NWEA examined a national sample of more than 5 million 3rd-8th graders who took the 2017-18 Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment, which tracks academic growth and is aligned to the Common Core Standards. They used typical summer learning loss rates to predict potential COVID-19 learning loss rates. Results showed that students are projected to return in the fall with 70% of the expected reading gains they would have otherwise made,...

02 06 2020
The effects of high-quality PD on teachers and students

A report from the Education Policy Institute (EPI) in the U.K. reviews the evidence on the impact of professional development (PD) for teachers, and finds that high-quality PD can play a role in improving teaching quality. Commissioned by Wellcome, the rapid review and meta-analysis examined 52 randomized controlled trials evaluating PD programs for teachers in order to establish their impact on student and teacher outcomes. These were trials of interventions that went beyond current practice in school, and might include training courses, mentoring, seminars, and peer review. The findings of the report suggest that High-quality PD has a positive effect on students’ learning outcomes (ES = +0.09). The review also suggests that the availability of high-quality PD may have a positive impact on teacher retention, particularly for early-career teachers.   Source: Fletcher-Wood, H., & Zuccollo, J. (2020). The effects of high-quality professional development on teachers and students – A rapid review and meta-analysis....

19 05 2020
Keeping teachers engaged is key to retention

There is a strong interaction between how engaged and supported teachers feel and intention to remain or leave the profession, an analysis by Sarah Lynch and colleagues for the UK’s National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER)  has found. The research is based on data collected from four rounds of NFER’s nationally representative Teacher Voice survey between June 2015 and May 2016, and 21 in-depth interviews with teachers who have recently left or are considering leaving the state sector. It explores how engaged and supported teachers feel and how this has changed over the last year, and analyzes how it relates to their intention to remain in the profession or to leave. The findings were as follow: Half of the teachers surveyed were “engaged,” and of these, 90% said that they were not considering leaving, compared with 26% of “disengaged” teachers. Math teachers and senior leaders were found to have high levels of...

05 05 2020
Burnout among Chinese kindergarten teachers

Teaching stress has become a well-confirmed problem among teachers over recent decades. Recently, a study conducted in Tianjin, China, also investigated the prevalence and correlates of burnout among Chinese kindergarten teachers. The study randomly selected and invited 1795 kindergarten teachers to participate in a survey study conducted from July to October 2018. The teachers invited were from 16 districts in Tianjin, where more than 1200 kindergartens were based. The response rate was 97%. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey scale was used to access the burnout level in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished professional accomplishment. The study found that: The prevalence of burnout in Chinese kindergarten teachers was 53.2%. Respectively, 38.6%, 23.8%, and 21.8% of teachers reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a low level of professional accomplishment. Teachers who were dissatisfied with their income were more likely to experience burnout than their counterparts. Kindergarten teachers who...

05 05 2020
Training versus coaching to improve teaching

A study by Jacobus Cilliers and Stephen Taylor reports the results of a randomized controlled trial of two different approaches to improving the teaching of reading in primary schools in South Africa. More than two hundred schools took part and were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: a training intervention group, a coaching intervention group, and a control group. Teachers in the first intervention group received a one-off training session. Teachers in the second intervention group were visited on a monthly basis by a specialist reading coach who monitored their teaching, provided feedback, and demonstrated teaching practices. Both interventions provided teachers with structured lesson plans. Teachers in the control group received the usual level of government support and in-service training. The study measured the impact of the intervention on both student learning and teaching activity in the classroom. They found that: Coaching improved students’ reading by 0.24 standard deviations compared to students...

05 05 2020