卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Do schools serving “Breakfast After-the-Bell” have lower student absenteeism?

With the rise in the availability of absenteeism data, it is clear that students in the United States were missing much school time even prior to Covid closures. In response, researchers and policymakers have been identifying school programs that might reduce student absenteeism. “Breakfast After-the-Bell” (BAB) is a school-based program where breakfast is served after school starts (rather than the traditional breakfast model, which occurs before school), either in the classroom itself or as a grab-and-go from a cafeteria where a student eats it in the first period classroom (or in-between first and second periods). In an article published by Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Kirksey and Gottfried examined whether implementing this breakfast program might reduce school absenteeism. Exploring longitudinal statewide datasets (Colorado and Nevada) containing school breakfast information linked to national data on chronic absenteeism rates, they employed sharp and fuzzy regression discontinuity designs to examine the effects of BAB. The findings...

18 06 2021
Teacher-student relationship is especially important for Chinese students from low SES families

In a recent article published in Current Psychology, Liu and colleagues (2021) employed a multilevel analysis on the impacts of teacher-student relationships on students’ achievements. The study used data from China’s Program of Regional Education Assessment, which was a national project. The project administered a standardized assessment and survey in 2016. The current study used a set of data comprised of 129 mathematics teachers and 8,707 fourth-grade students from 164 classes. The study examined the relationships between teacher-student relationships, students’ academic self-efficacy in mathematics, socioeconomic status, and mathematics achievements. Students’ socioeconomic status was measured by parents’ highest level of education, parents’ highest occupation status, and family property, including books in the home. The analysis showed that: The effects of SES on mathematics achievements was mediated by academic self-efficacy. There was a significant interaction between teacher-student relationships and SES for self-efficacy. The teacher-student relationship moderated the indirect relationship between SES and...

18 06 2021
Should teachers and parents teach together?

Teaching Together is an initiative that combines tiered school instruction with home curricular supplements to enhance language skills among pre-k children at risk for later reading difficulties. Researchers from the University of Texas Health Science Center and Florida Center for Reading Research examined the effects of Teaching Together, in a study published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly. This study included a sample of Head Start children demonstrating risk for later reading difficulties and eligible for Tier-2 services (targeted instruction for children with weak skills). By adopting an RCT-design, researchers randomized one control and three treatment groups: Control or business-as-usual (BAU) family engagement experiences (n=72), Tier 1 Family workshops and universal text messages (n=241), Tier 2 Basic Family, which added learning materials and targeted text messages to the workshops (n=29), Tier 2 Enhanced Family, which added parent coaching/individualized communication to the above supports (n=31). Among all three treatments, findings were as follows: The Tier...

04 05 2021
How did absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic affect student outcomes?

In March 2020, most schools in the United States transitioned to distance learning in an effort to contain COVID-19. During the transition, a significant number of students did not fully engage in remote learning opportunities due to resource or other constraints. An urgent question for schools around the nation is how much the pandemic impacted student outcomes. In a recent article published by Educational Researcher, the authors used administrative panel data from six large CORE Districts in California to approximate the impact of the pandemic by analyzing how absenteeism affected student outcomes. The results showed that: There were wide variation in absenteeism impacts on academic and social-emotional outcomes by grade and subgroup, as well as the cumulative effect of different degrees of absence.Student outcomes generally suffer more from absenteeism in mathematics than in English language arts.Negative effects are larger in middle school. Absences also negatively affect social-emotional development, particularly in middle school, which...

04 05 2021
Does attending kindergartens matter when other factors are considered? Findings from ethnic minority children in China

The benefits of attending kindergartens have been shown in different longitudinal studies. However, a recent study published in Children and Youth Services Review pointed out, studies about the effects among ethnic minorities are rare, as the different language used in the education system might undermine the effect of attending kindergarten. In this regard, Ling Li and colleagues conducted a study among Zhuang students in China for the relationship between attending kindergarten and reading literacy. The data of this study was obtained from a larger study for junior high school students conducted in a rural area of southwestern China. It only included Zhuang students in the analysis. In total, there were 457 Zhuang students from 106 schools who were randomly sampled in this study. The participating students completed a questionnaire including questions about individual particulars, family factors, early education experience, after school time, parental expectations, and self-expectations. Their Chinese reading literacy...

21 04 2021
School inputs influencing student attendance: An experimental estimate

There is growing consensus that student attendance is an important intermediate outcome influenced by teachers and other school inputs. However, the malleable school inputs that affect student attendance rates are poorly understood.  In an article newly published by Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Long Tran and Seth Gershenson investigated the effect of class-level inputs, including class size and observable teacher characteristics, on student attendance rates. They leveraged the random classroom assignments made by Tennessee’s Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio) class size experiment, and its publicly available data. The results showed that: A ten-student increase in class size raised the probability of being chronically absent by about three percentage points (21%). For Black students, random assignment to a Black teacher reduced the probability of chronic absence by three percentage points (26%). Finally, about 5% of the impact of both class-size and student-teacher race match on test scores could be explained by improved attendance.  ...

21 04 2021
Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
The cost of preK

Can anyone put a price on a child's education? As a result of a glaring deficiency of research on the costs of early childhood policies and programs, Kabay and colleagues sought to rectify this gap by examining the costs of preK in Boston. Their goals in this study were to: Estimate how much Boston's highly effective public preschool program costs overall. Break down costs that are used only by the preschool and those that are system-wide. Quantify how costs change over time, in particular comparing startup and maintenance costs. Generalize costs in Boston to be nationally-representative. Their findings indicated that the total per-child costs for one year of prekindergarten in Boston ranged from $15,240 during a time of maintenance to $18,210 during a time of expansion. Systems costs comprised approximately 40% of the total costs of prekindergarten, consequently only 60% of the total cost of prekindergarten was in additive costs. This...

24 03 2021
Using modified truancy notifications to parents to improve their child’s attendance

Attendance strongly predicts academic success. Many states in the United States require that districts or schools notify parents when students have missed multiple unexcused days of school. In a working paper released by the Annenberg Institute at Brown University, Jessica Lasky-Fink and her colleagues reported the impact of sending parents truancy notifications modified to target behavioral barriers that can hinder effective parental engagement. Compared to standard, legalistic, and punitively-worded notifications, modified truancy notifications used simplified language, emphasized parental role and efficacy, and highlighted the negative incremental effects of missing school. This evaluation was a randomized experiment (N=131,312), and showed that modified truancy notifications reduced absences by 7 days, an estimated 40% improvement over the standard truancy notification.   Source: Lasky-Fink, Jessica, Carly D. Robinson, Hedy Chang, and Todd Rogers. (2020). Using behavioral insights to improve school administrative communications: The case of truancy notifications. (Edworkingpaper: 20-271). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University: https://doi.org/10.26300/62tp-nx06… Read...

10 03 2021