卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

New review of evidence on parental engagement

A review of evidence published by the Education Endowment Foundation in the UK shows how parental engagement can have a positive effect on a child’s academic achievement – regardless of age or socioeconomic status. The review, conducted by the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter and supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), concludes that parental engagement in children’s learning is associated with improved academic outcomes, and that the association is stronger when parental engagement is defined as parents’ expectations for their children’s academic achievement. All studies controlled for parents’ education and/or family socioeconomic status. The review highlights areas of promise for how schools and early education settings can support parents in a way that improves their children’s learning. Examples include family literacy interventions to help boost younger children’s learning, and summer reading programs that improve school-aged children’s learning, particularly among families from more disadvantaged backgrounds. An overarching recommendation is the...

06 11 2019
Improving attendance by improving school conditions

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a student missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that students are not getting the support they need. The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and student social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance. The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.   Source (Open Access) : Chang, H.N., Osher, D., Schanfield, M., Sundius, J. & Bauer, L. (2019). Using Chronic...

06 11 2019
Growth Mindset and Work Engagement of Chinese Teachers

Individuals with a growth mindset believe that abilities can be developed over time. While this concept has been gaining popularity for its impact on students, a recent study published in Frontiers in Psychology examined how a growth mindset is related to work engagement of Chinese middle school teachers. Using a questionnaire that contained measures of growth mindset, work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being, Zeng and colleagues examined the relationships of these factors with 472 teachers from 10 urban secondary schools in Chengdu city who participated in the study. They found that:  Growth mindset of teachers was strongly and positively correlated with work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being. Growth mindset was positively associated with work engagement, while the relationship was also partially mediated by well-being and perseverance of effort. The authors suggested that despite the differences between Easterners and Westerners in cognitive styles, social orientation, values and motivation, the result demonstrated the benefit...

23 10 2019
New practice guide on technology use in postsecondary education

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) has released a new practice guide that focuses on promising uses of technologies associated with improving postsecondary student learning outcomes. Research that was eligible for the guide used a comparison group design, included an intervention that used technology to support student learning, involved college students in the United States, was published in 1997 or later, and reported on one or more outcomes in a relevant domain (e.g., academic achievement, credit accumulation and persistence). After considering the evidence, an expert panel drafted the following recommendations and assigned a level of evidence to each: Use communication and collaboration tools to increase interaction among students and between students and instructors. (minimal evidence) Use varied, personalized, and readily available digital resources to design and deliver instructional content. (moderate evidence) Incorporate technology that models and fosters self-regulated learning strategies. (moderate evidence) Use technology to provide timely and targeted feedback on student performance....

23 10 2019
Do higher teacher qualifications mean better early childhood education and care?

This Campbell systematic review examines the evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of early childhood learning environments, as measured by the Environment Rating Scale (ERS). The review summarizes findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. The studies had to be comparative or correlational and report either an overall quality scale or an environment rating scale. Overall, the review suggests that higher teacher qualifications are positively associated with classroom quality in early childhood education and care (effect size = +0.20). The review also suggests a positive correlation between teacher qualifications and classroom quality on a number of subscales, including: Program structure– focusing on the schedule, time for free play, group time, and provisions for children with disabilities (ES = +0.22). Activities– this relates to fine motor, art, music/movement, blocks, sand/water, dramatic play, nature/science, math/number, use of digital technologies, and promoting acceptance of diversity (ES = +0.20). Language and...

23 10 2019
What makes children stressed?

A research report from the Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre in the UK looks at family “stressors” and the impact on children’s outcomes. The authors look at whether particular life events are especially detrimental, whether they have an impact across different outcomes (educational, social, etc.), and whether the effects of early childhood events persist into adolescence. They also look at the association between family factors and outcomes. The findings of the report are broad, especially as different family factors can be associated with different types of outcomes. Key findings include that Extreme stressful events, such as homelessness, victimization, or abuse, can have long-term effects on children’s outcomes. Some stressful events have an impact on children’s emotional and social well-being but not their educational outcomes, and so their negative impacts may therefore be harder to pick up. The authors point out that in order to target interventions, it is important to understand which...

08 10 2019
Reassessing concerns about school may help improve academic achievement

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences looks at what impact an intervention designed to help students with concerns about starting middle school has on their academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. Geoffrey D. Borman and colleagues conducted the study with 1,304 sixth graders at 11 middle schools in a U.S. Midwestern public school district. Within each of the 11 schools, students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention group was given reflective writing exercises, two months apart, which were designed to help students reassess any concerns and worries they might have about belonging in school. The control condition exercises asked students to write about neutral middle school experiences that were not related to school belonging. The researchers collected pre- and post-intervention survey data on students' reported social and emotional well-being, and official school records of student attendance, disciplinary records, and grades. The results of the...

24 09 2019
Growing up digital

A report published by the Nuffield Foundation in the UK finds that computer use in schools does not on its own boost students' digital literacy or prepare them for the workplace. The report, written by Angela McFarlane, examines how digital technologies are used in schools to enhance learning, and identifies research questions to inform better practice and policy. It examines ten years of existing evidence on the effect the use of digital technology has on learning, and finds that: Putting computers into schools is no guarantee that there will be a positive impact on learning outcomes as measured in high-stakes assessments or on the development of digital literacy. How digital technologies are used is as important as whether they are used. There is no shared picture of what effective digital skills teaching looks like. Teachers may not have opportunities to develop the skills they need to make effective use of technology. The current...

24 09 2019
Better schools for all?

The Better Schools for All? report, published by the Nuffield Foundation, examines the role that schools play in students’ education and suggests that the school reforms in the UK in the past two decades have failed to bridge the gap in student achievement. Researchers from University College London and the National Institute of Economic and Social Research looked at data from around 3,000 secondary schools in England between 2003 and 2016 and compared student outcomes and teachers’ experiences with those of employees elsewhere. They found that: Attending a “good” secondary school adds only a small amount more value than attending a “bad” secondary Overall, schools were found to contribute around 10% of variance in student achievement. State schools are better at managing staff than private schools. Using Workplace Employment Relations Survey data, the study shows that state schools were more likely to have rigorous hiring practices and employee participation programs than private...

13 08 2019