卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
The cost of preK

Can anyone put a price on a child's education? As a result of a glaring deficiency of research on the costs of early childhood policies and programs, Kabay and colleagues sought to rectify this gap by examining the costs of preK in Boston. Their goals in this study were to: Estimate how much Boston's highly effective public preschool program costs overall. Break down costs that are used only by the preschool and those that are system-wide. Quantify how costs change over time, in particular comparing startup and maintenance costs. Generalize costs in Boston to be nationally-representative. Their findings indicated that the total per-child costs for one year of prekindergarten in Boston ranged from $15,240 during a time of maintenance to $18,210 during a time of expansion. Systems costs comprised approximately 40% of the total costs of prekindergarten, consequently only 60% of the total cost of prekindergarten was in additive costs. This...

24 03 2021
Using modified truancy notifications to parents to improve their child’s attendance

Attendance strongly predicts academic success. Many states in the United States require that districts or schools notify parents when students have missed multiple unexcused days of school. In a working paper released by the Annenberg Institute at Brown University, Jessica Lasky-Fink and her colleagues reported the impact of sending parents truancy notifications modified to target behavioral barriers that can hinder effective parental engagement. Compared to standard, legalistic, and punitively-worded notifications, modified truancy notifications used simplified language, emphasized parental role and efficacy, and highlighted the negative incremental effects of missing school. This evaluation was a randomized experiment (N=131,312), and showed that modified truancy notifications reduced absences by 7 days, an estimated 40% improvement over the standard truancy notification.   Source: Lasky-Fink, Jessica, Carly D. Robinson, Hedy Chang, and Todd Rogers. (2020). Using behavioral insights to improve school administrative communications: The case of truancy notifications. (Edworkingpaper: 20-271). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University: https://doi.org/10.26300/62tp-nx06… Read...

10 03 2021
Do academic performance related to mobile phone use?

Mobile phone use has become more common even among students. Would using mobile phone have any implication to students’ achievement? Recently, Liu and colleagues investigated the relationship between prolonged mobile phone use and academic performance among adolescents in China. The study was based on a sample from Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort conducted in 2015. The survey examined students’ weekday and weekend mobile phone use, sleep duration, insomnia, depression, and self-reported achievement. Among the sample of 11,831 students, the researchers were able to obtain the year end achievement tests score for Chinese, Mathematics, and English of 856 students following the baseline survey for the analysis. The results were as follows: Students achievement significantly decreased should their prolonged mobile phone use was more than 1 hour on weekday and 2 hours or more on weekend. After controlling for their backgrounds, students who used mobile phone more than two hours during...

10 02 2021
Do the effects of high-quality PreK persist?

A team of scholars evaluated the effects of a high-quality PreK learning environment on subsequent years of schooling. The study included the second cohort of children who entered PreK in the 2010-2011 school year in the Tennessee Voluntary Prekindergarten Program, a well-known randomized experiment on PreK effectiveness, which found initial positive effects of PreK attendance, fading out over time. The final sample of the current study, after excluding 434 children with missing data, was composed of 806 students, including 491 PreK participants, and 315 non-participants. The results showed that: Neither attending high-quality schools, nor being taught by high-quality teachers, solely demonstrated significant evidence for the persistence of positive PreK effects through 3rd grade. However, when children were exposed to both high-quality schools and high-quality teachers, children who participated in PreK programs showed significantly greater achievement in ELA (b = .15, SE = .07, p < .05) and math (b = .17, SE...

10 02 2021
What contributes to effective school transformation initiatives?

Schools in the United States are continuously pressured to perform or improve performance, leading to a variety of methodologies intended to increase student achievement. But not all methodologies are equally effective. A recent study by Henry & Harbatkin examines the effectiveness of one such effort, the ESSA-aligned North Carolina Transformation (NCT) initiative, started in 2015. The initiative provided school transformation support services and instructional coaching to 75 schools in the bottom 5 percent of state proficiency testing over the course of two academic years. The majority of these schools were in rural locations (72), while six were located in cities or towns, and were a mixture of elementary (38), middle (28), and high schools (12). These schools, compared to non-treatment schools, were noted to have higher minority and low-income student populations, higher percentages of new teachers, and higher per student expenditures. Comparing student performance, through end-of-year and end-of-course assessments, Henry & Harbatkin...

10 02 2021
Is course acceleration a good-for-all policy?

Is exposing students to course acceleration the best way to help their skills acquisition? Recently RAND Corporation’s Andrew McEachin and his colleagues investigated the impact of enrolling in advanced math courses on students’ achievement and heterogeneity across schools. Hundreds of California middle schools use 7th-grade test scores to place students into 8th-grade algebra, but placement thresholds vary across schools. This study used such a scenario to estimate causal effects via a regression discontinuity (RD) design using 7th-grade algebra scores from the California Standards Test (CST) across 510 schools. Results suggest that: Enrolling in 8th-grade algebra increased students’ math scores by 0.05 SD and ELA by 0.34 SD on the 10th grade California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) tests. Further, the likelihood of students’ enrollment in advanced math in 9th and 11th grade rose by 30% and 16% when compared to their non-accelerated peers, with underserved students gaining the most from placement into early...

27 01 2021
Does early childhood education influence future school selection?

A recent study published in Educational Researcher explored the long-term impacts of an early childhood educational (ECE) intervention. Watt and colleagues utilized data from the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), which implemented an intervention from 2004 – 2006, along with student enrollment information from the 2016-2017 school year. The initial CSRP intervention focused on addressing behavioral concerns in students and included increased professional development opportunities for teachers and increased access to mental health professionals for teachers and families. This intervention took place in 35 classrooms with 602 students and utilized a cluster-randomized control trial to explore the effectiveness of the CSRP intervention. Watt and colleagues were able to obtain 2016-2017 enrollment information on 461 of those 602 students. For the current study, the researchers were interested in analyzing the impact that the CSRP intervention had on future school selection.  They discovered that: Students from the treatment groups were 11.84 percent less likely (p < .001) to enroll in...

27 01 2021
Do school turnaround reforms improve student outcomes?

Recent controversy has surrounded the effectiveness of school turnaround efforts--programs designed to significantly reform schools or districts through changes to organization, staffing, and governance--to address student outcomes.  A recent meta-analysis by Redding & Nguyen seeks to shed light on the issue by examining the association between different forms of school turnaround and attendance, standardized test scores, and graduation rates. They highlight four school turnaround mechanisms—transformation and turnaround (including comprehensive instructional reform or teacher and principal effectiveness reforms), changes in human capital (through replacing the principal or teachers), changes in governance or management of low-performing schools (such as through state takeover of schools or school districts, closures of schools, or transitioning schools to charter status), and high-stakes accountability policies. Thirty-five of 13,800 studies screened were eligible for the analysis, showing that: There is evidence of positive association between school turnaround, transformation, and school restart and improvements in student attendance, math and ELA test scores, and graduation....

27 01 2021