卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Administration and Leadership

Does augmented reality promote learning outcomes?

Augmented reality (AR) technology emphasizes superimposing virtual information over the real environment to create a new context of learning.  Studies and research about the impact of using augmented reality (AR) continue to grow in number in the educational sector. By including a total of 134 (quasi-)experiment studies from 2012 to 2021, Chang and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of AR on three levels of learning outcomes: Response outcome: learners’ self-reported attitude to the AR learning environment, e.g., satisfaction, motivation, or perception of usefulness Knowledge and skill outcome: involves assessment tools to measure learners’ understanding and skills, e.g., literacy, numeracy, or reasoning. Performance outcome: how learners apply and transfer what they learned to the authentic situation, e.g., conduct scientific enquiry or operate a simulated medical survey. Results of the meta-analysis included: Comparing AR with non-AR, positive impacts of AR instruction were found on response outcome (g=+0.49), knowledge and...

20 01 2023
Digital divide in online learning in China

Online learning has drastically expanded in recent years. While some people believe there are certain advantages of online learning over traditional learning, others are concerned online learning will widen the inequality. Certainly, the online learning tsunami has created what is described as the “Digital divide”, which refers to the differences in access to, use of, and skills in information and communication technology (ICT) among different social groups. A study by Guo and Wan examined equity issues in online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stratified sampling was conducted to draw sample data from the Online Learning Survey of High School Students. A total of 27,710 (49.7% boys) students’ responses from 164 high schools in 10 provinces was included in the study. Three levels of digital divide were assessed regarding students’ online learning during the pandemic: First-level digital divide refers to equipment and network conditions. Though 95% of students had...

06 01 2023
Independent measures and researcher-developer-made measures. How big is the difference?

A recent study by Wolf and Harbatkin examined the difference in terms of effect sizes between types of measures. To be considered in this review, the studies had to be carried out on reading, STEM, or behavior topics using randomized or quasi-experimental designs and be part of the What Works Clearinghouse repository. A total of 373 studies with 1553 effect sizes were included in the review. The measures used in each study were then classified in four categories: Independent broad: when the measure was not created by the same researchers/developers who conducted the study or designed the program and was intended to evaluate student achievement in a subject. Independent narrow: similar to the previous one but included measures intended to evaluate specific elements of a subject area. Non-independent developer: when the measure was created by the developer of the program under evaluation. Non-independent researcher: when the measure was created by...

06 01 2023
Mental health interventions targeted to support depression or anxiety

A recent meta-analysis by Zhang and colleagues evaluated the effectiveness of school-based mental health interventions on depression and anxiety outcomes. The meta-analysis included 29 studies evaluating 32 programs implemented in kindergarten through 12th grade. Most studies took place in Australia (41%) and the United States (28%). The study found that: Overall, interventions reduced depression and anxiety (ES=+0.24, p=0.002). Interventions administered in secondary schools had statistically significant mean effect sizes of +0.42 (p=0.006), while those administered at the elementary level did not produce significant results (ES=+0.06, p=0.547). Interventions with cognitive behavioral therapy elements significantly reduced the outcome of interest (ES=+0.33, p=0.002). Cognitive behavioral therapy can be implemented in clinical and school settings to help individuals learn to shift thinking and behavior patterns to better cope with issues such as depression and anxiety. With a growing need to address the mental well-being of youth, the findings from this study suggest programs that...

23 12 2022
Mediated learning for preschoolers with developmental delay

Think Bright is an early intervention program using mediated learning to enhance the cognitive functioning of children with developmental delay. Keung and colleagues conducted a randomized control trial to investigate the effect of the program on Hong Kong preschoolers with developmental delay. The intervention included training activities that focused on three aspects of thinking skills: analogical thinking, sequential thinking, and logical reasoning. In contrast to teacher-centred direct teaching, mediated learning is a recurring four-step process of “Explore-Try-Mediate-Conclude”. In the process, teachers used mediation skills to facilitate and guide the child to perform the learning task by encouraging the child to think aloud and verbalize his/her approaches and findings. Hence, the researchers hypothesized that mediated learning not only improves thinking skills but also language skills. A total of 68 preschoolers (48 boys, 20 girls, mean age = 58 months) with cognitive and/or language delay was recruited from 15 rehabilitation service centres...

09 12 2022
Does school tracking increase efficiency and inequalities in educational systems?

The Review of Educational Research recently published a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of school tracking on student achievement and inequalities. School tracking is the practice of assigning students based on their abilities and interests to different types of education, such as type of school or curricula. Within-school tracking consists of grouping students in different classrooms (e.g., ability grouping). Between-school tracking assigns students to different types of schools (e.g., vocational, academic), where the subjects taught are different and specific. The authors evaluated the effects of the two types of school tracking on student academic achievement – considering that a measure of efficiency of an educational system – as well as on inequalities, measured in two ways: dispersion of student performance, meaning the gap between high and low performers; and the interaction between social-economic background and student achievement. A positive interaction means that socio-economic background has a larger effect in tracked...

18 11 2022
Effect of blended learning on student performance

Li and colleagues recently conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of blended learning on K-12 students’ performance. In recent years, blended learning has become increasingly popular in K-12 education especially after the impact of COVID-19. Blended learning, also known as mixed or hybrid learning, refers to the combination of traditional face-to-face and online learning. In this meta-analysis, online learning is defined as any formal education program in which part of the instruction and content were delivered to students online with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace. A total of 84 studies with 112 effect sizes published from 2000 to 2020 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, compared to face-to-face learning only, the blended learning method showed a larger effect (ES = +0.65) with substantial heterogeneity. Effects were significantly different among various student outcomes domains. The cognitive domain (e.g., exam scores, ES = +0.74) was the...

04 11 2022
A process to address test alignment

A recent study published in the Social Sciences & Humanities Open journal provides guidance on how to manage differential alignment between outcome measures and education interventions. When conducting research in natural settings, researchers try to reduce bias by accounting for influence of study artifacts such as measurement errors or implementation problems. Not only artifacts, but other factors will also influence the magnitude of effects. One such factor is the content alignment between programs and outcomes measures. Use of researchers-developed measures usually associated with larger effect sizes if the researchers-developed measures are overaligned to the treatment. Accounting for problem of program-outcome overalignment, and the resulting propensity for magnified effect sizes, the authors propose a process of quantifying differential alignment that differs from other researchers’ approach, as it does not rely on item-level of measures but rather extracts information based on program contents of treatment conditions and assessments. The differential alignment primarily...

04 11 2022
Tutoring implementation: A review

The Covid-19 pandemic interrupted student learning to various extents in the past two years. Many studies demonstrate that tutoring programs where students receive small-group or one-to-one academic support are effective in improving academic achievement. However, there are few reviews that summarize the evidence on these programs’ implementation. A group of researchers at Brown University conducted a systematic review of 40 studies to synthesize how tutoring is implemented and experienced. This review provides three findings: There are five conceptualizations of tutoring in the reviewed studies, which are not mutually exclusive: Tutoring is aimed at facilitating the development of academic skills and cultivation of positive attitudes toward learning; Tutoring is innovative in that it redistributes power and instructional roles; Tutoring scaffolds pre-service teachers getting prepared for classroom instruction; Tutoring serves as a marketplace where tutors compete to provide accessible tutoring resources of high quality; Tutoring services can better cater to students’ and...

04 11 2022