卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Effective Teaching Approach

The benefits of peer learning

Harriet R. Tenenbaum and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis to examine results from 71 studies about the effects of peer interaction on learning. To be included in the review, studies had to include a comparison group. Peer interaction was defined as small groups of students working together to achieve common goals of learning. Approaches using more formal training, such as cooperative learning or peer tutoring, were excluded. The majority of the studies were conducted in the U.S. and U.K. and included more than 7,000 children between ages 4 and 18. Published in Journal of Educational Psychology, their findings suggest that: Peer interaction was effective in promoting learning in comparison with other types of learning conditions (effect size = +0.40) across different gender and age groups. In contrast, children working in peer groups were not more effective than children working individually with adults. There was also no effect for group size, with findings suggesting that...

10 03 2020
Classroom management interventions made a difference

A meta-analysis of classroom management interventions has found that they improved academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes. Published in the Review of Educational Research, the study included 54 classroom management interventions in 47 studies published between 2003 and 2013. It included some interventions that had been evaluated several times (including Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), the Good Behavior Game, and Zippy’s Friends). About three-quarters of the studies were carried out in the U.S., with the remainder in Europe and Canada. Most interventions were focused on changing students’ behavior (85%), improving students’ social-emotional development (74%), or changing teachers’ behavior (54%). Only two interventions were specifically targeted to improving teacher–student relationships. The analysis found that: There was an overall effect size of +0.22 for the interventions, with a slightly higher effect on behavior (+0.24), and less on social-emotional (+0.21) and academic (+0.17) outcomes. There was no significant effect on motivational outcomes. The analysis also indicated that...

12 02 2020
The impact of peer assessment on academic achievement

Researchers from the University of Oxford’s Department of Education conducted a meta-analysis to examine what effect peer assessment interventions have on academic performance. Published in Educational Psychology Review, the meta-analysis evaluated the effect of peer assessment on academic performance when compared to no assessment and teacher assessment. Fifty-four studies were included in the meta-analysis, of which 45% were with school-age students. Studies had to examine the effect of peer assessment on non-self-reported measures of academic achievement and have a control or comparison group, using no assessment, teacher assessment, or self-assessment. The findings from the analysis indicated that: Overall there was a significant positive effect of peer assessment on academic performance compared with no assessment (ES= +0.31) and teacher assessment (ES = +0.28). The effect size was similar when peer assessment compared with self-assessment (ES = +0.23) though this result was not significant. The effect sizes were slightly larger for school-age children than undergraduates....

29 01 2020
How do teachers choose to give feedback?

While the impacts of feedback on students’ learning are well-known, it is less clear what factors influenced the ways teachers providing feedback. To help rectify this, an article published in the British Journal of Educational Psychology has examined how teachers’ perceptions of task difficulty and views of intelligence influence whether and how they give feedback.  This study was conducted among 169 English teachers from Chinese primary schools attending an English Summer school for enhancing teacher skills. Teachers were given six scenarios to read, each of which described a lesson where the teacher asked a designated student to complete a task. In three of the scenarios, the student succeeded, while in the other three scenarios, the student failed. After reading each scenario, teachers were asked to rate their perception of task difficulty, the likelihood of giving feedback, and the likelihood of giving person and process forms of feedback. Moreover, teachers completed a measure...

15 01 2020
Effects of different rewards on spelling scores and prosocial behavior

A study published in Educational Psychology examines how different approaches to rewarding students affected their spelling scores and prosocial behavior for different ability levels. A total of 1,005 students, aged 9 and 10, in 28 classes were recruited from three primary schools in Singapore. Classes were randomly assigned to one of five reward conditions: competitive, cooperative, individualistic, cooperative-competitive, and cooperative-individualistic. An ABABA (A= implementation, B = withdrawal) design was used for each condition, and students’ spelling scores were tracked over a period of 10 weeks. Teachers were asked to rate students’ prosocial behavior before and after the study. The results showed that The different conditions did affect students’ spelling scores and prosocial behavior, but that these effects depended on ability level, such that different conditions were more effective for different ability levels.  Across all five conditions, only the cooperative-competitive condition resulted in increased spelling scores and prosocial behavior across all three ability groups,...

30 12 2019
The impact of shared book reading on children’s language skills

This meta-analysis, published in Educational Research Review, explores whether shared reading interventions are equally effective across a range of study designs, across a range of different outcome variables, and for children from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: Must contain a universal and/or targeted shared book reading intervention Must include at least one control group Participants must be typically developing children aged seven years old or younger Must not target multilingual populations and/or the acquisition of an additional language Must isolate the variable of interest (shared book reading) Must report on objective quantitative measure of language ability Must provide sufficient data to calculate the effect size The results suggest : There was an overall effect size (+0.19) of shared reading on children’s language development. This effect was moderated by the type of control group used and was near zero in studies...

04 12 2019
Using technology to facilitate personalized learning in China

An article recently published in Frontiers in Psychology reported how technology is used to facilitate personalized learning in China. Xiaofeng You and colleagues examined the Chinese Learning Diagnosis System (CLDS) developed by a Chinese educational evaluation company designed for providing timely feedback to students and teachers.  The CLDS analyzes students’ assignments for their mastery of various attributes and generates feedback to students and teachers. Consequently, students can identify their strengths and weakness and teachers can modify their instruction using the information. To examine the CLDS’s effectiveness, the achievements, self-efficacy, and academic motivation of 547 high school students enrolled in an experimental school in 2012 were compared to 396 high school students in a school where CLDS was not used. Achievement in the pretest was measured by high school entrance examination scores, and achievement in the posttest 3 years later was measured by the college entrance examination scores; both are high stakes tests...

06 11 2019
What are the best self-regulated learning strategies for Chinese students?

Self-regulated learning has been regarded as essential for effective learning. Research suggests that self-regulated learning is associated with academic performance, but different self-regulated learning strategies are not equally effective. Addressing the gap that occurred because few studies conducted in Asia were included in a previous meta-analysis, a meta-analysis published in Frontiers in Psychology has investigated what the most effective strategies for Chinese students were. Using Chinese academic databases, Li and colleagues analyzed 264 independent samples that involved 23,497 participants from 59 studies. In order to be included in this meta-analysis, studies had to be conducted in real teaching situations; studies based on online learning environments were excluded. Furthermore, participants had to be elementary, junior high or secondary high school students in China. The effect sizes of self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement were analyzed. The result showed that:  Among the self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy (ES= 0.70), self-evaluation (ES= 0.72), and task strategies (ES= 0.60)...

23 10 2019
New practice guide on technology use in postsecondary education

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) has released a new practice guide that focuses on promising uses of technologies associated with improving postsecondary student learning outcomes. Research that was eligible for the guide used a comparison group design, included an intervention that used technology to support student learning, involved college students in the United States, was published in 1997 or later, and reported on one or more outcomes in a relevant domain (e.g., academic achievement, credit accumulation and persistence). After considering the evidence, an expert panel drafted the following recommendations and assigned a level of evidence to each: Use communication and collaboration tools to increase interaction among students and between students and instructors. (minimal evidence) Use varied, personalized, and readily available digital resources to design and deliver instructional content. (moderate evidence) Incorporate technology that models and fosters self-regulated learning strategies. (moderate evidence) Use technology to provide timely and targeted feedback on student performance....

23 10 2019