卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Effective Teaching Approach

Results of a large randomized controlled trial of growth mindset

A randomized controlled trial published in the journal Nature has found that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention may improve achievement among lower-achieving students and increase overall enrollment in advanced math courses. The study, conducted by David S. Yeager and colleagues, was the largest ever randomized controlled trial of growth mindset in U.S. schools, with 12,000 ninth graders in 65 schools involved. Students were individually randomized to either a control or intervention group. The intervention group was asked to complete two 25-minute online courses, taken three weeks apart. Students were given information about how the brain works and the latest research on growth mindset, then they completed activities such as explaining what they had learned from the course to students in the year below. Students in the control group were given a similar program with information on how the brain worked, but no information on growth mindset. Following the intervention, students' grade point average (GPA)...

11 09 2019
Teaching secondary students to write effectively

The Institute of Education Sciences has released a What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Educator’s Practice Guide. The guide, Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively, provides evidence-based recommendations for improving the writing skills of middle and high school students. The WWC and a panel chaired by Steve Graham at Arizona State University synthesized existing research on the topic and combined it with insight from the panel to identify the following recommendations, which include a rating of the strength of the research evidence supporting each recommendation: Explicitly teach appropriate writing strategies using a Model-Practice-Reflect instructional cycle (strong evidence) Integrate writing and reading to emphasize key writing features (moderate evidence) Use assessments of student writing to inform instruction and feedback (minimal evidence) To help teachers put the recommendations into practice, the guide describes over 30 specific strategies for the classroom, including sample writing prompts, activities that incorporate both writing and reading, and ways to use...

29 08 2019
Teaching elementary students to be effective writers

A practice guide from the What Works Clearinghouse, Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers , offers four strategies for improving elementary students’ writing: Provide daily time for students to write Teach students to use the writing process for a variety of purposes Teach students to become fluent with handwriting, spelling, sentence construction, typing, and word processing Create an engaged community of writers For each recommendation, the guide provides implementation ideas and examples, summaries of supporting research, and solutions to common roadblocks.  It is geared toward teachers, and other educators who want to improve the writing of their elementary students.   Source (Open Access) :Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012-4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of...

29 08 2019
Executive functions training improves thinking and creative abilities

While executive functions have been found closely related to creativity and thinking, the neuroscientific training for such functions has been regarded as difficult in widespread applications. However, based on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, research has indicated that reading aloud and simple arithmetic calculation activities could largely increase prefrontal activation. A recent study published in Thinking Skills and Creativity aimed to examine whether such training could improve students’ executive functioning, thinking and creative abilities. Thirty-eight students from a junior high school in Taiwan participated in this study. Half of them were randomly assigned into a training group, the other half were assigned to a control group. Over four weeks on weekdays, the students received 20 fifteen-minute sessions. Students in the training group read aloud and performed arithmetic calculations in each session. There were three difficulty levels for the reading materials and the arithmetic calculations to provide...

31 07 2019
Interleaved practice improves math test scores

The results of a randomized controlled trial, published in Journal of Educational Psychology, suggest that a greater emphasis on interleaved practice may dramatically improve math test scores for seventh graders. Whereas most mathematics worksheets consist of a block of problems devoted to the same skill or concept, an interleaved worksheet is arranged so that no two consecutive problems require the same strategy. Doug Rohrer and colleagues conducted the study with 54 classes in a large school district in Florida during the 2017–2018 school year. Over a period of four months, the classes periodically completed either interleaved or blocked worksheets, and then both groups completed an interleaved review worksheet. All students completed the same problems. One month later, students took an unannounced test which was set by the researchers. The study found that: Students who had completed the interleaved assignments performed much better on the unannounced test than those in the blocked assignment...

02 07 2019
What works for struggling readers?

Amanda Inns and colleagues from Johns Hopkins Center for Research and Reform in Education have completed a research review on effective programs for struggling readers in elementary schools. A total of 61 studies of 48 programs met study inclusion standards. 84% were randomized experiments and 16% quasi-experiments. Results showed that: There were positive outcomes for one-to-one tutoring and positive but not as large for one-to-small group tutoring. There were no differences in outcomes between teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Whole-class approaches (mostly cooperative learning) and whole-school approaches incorporating tutoring obtained outcomes for struggling readers as large as those found for one-to-one tutoring, and benefitted many more students. However, technology-supported adaptive instruction did not have positive outcomes. The article concludes that approaches mixing classroom and school improvements with tutoring for the most at-risk students have the greatest potential for the largest numbers of struggling readers.   Source (Open Access): Inns, A. J.,...

19 06 2019
Improving mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8

This practice guide from the What Works Clearinghouse provides five recommendations for improving students’ mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8. The guide is geared toward teachers, math coaches, other educators, and curriculum developers who want to improve the mathematical problem solving of students. Recommendations include: Assist students in monitoring and reflecting on the problem-solving process. Teach students how to use visual representations. Expose students to multiple problem-solving strategies. The guide presents evidence-based suggestions for putting each recommendation into practice and describes roadblocks that may be encountered, as well as possible solutions. Each recommendation is rated based on the strength of the research evidence that has shown the effectiveness of the recommendation. The recommendations listed above have strong to moderate evidence of effectiveness.   Source (Open Access): Woodward, J., Beckmann, S., Driscoll, M., Franke, M., Herzig, P., Jitendra, A., …Ogbuehi, P. (2012). Improving mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8:...

05 06 2019
The role of the teacher during collaborative learning

A systematic review of the role of the teacher during collaborative learning in primary and secondary education suggests that several types of teacher guidance can be positive. However, the challenge for the teacher is to support interaction between students without taking control of the moments in which opportunities to learn arise for students. The review, carried out by Anouschka van Leeuwen and Jeroen Janssen, included both qualitative and quantitative studies (n=66) conducted in primary and secondary schools, and looked at the relationship between the teacher’s role and the processes and outcomes of collaboration among students. The authors found that Feedback, prompting, questioning, and transferring control of the learning process to students were all effective strategies for collaborative learning. In contrast, some aspects of teacher guidance were found negatively associated with students’ collaboration, such as when teachers were too present or absent.Teachers' explanations and modelling behavior were not always contributive to students' collaboration....

08 05 2019
Computer-supported collaborative learning

Juanjuan Chen and colleagues recently performed a meta-analysis on the effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Using 425 empirical studies (all of which used a controlled experimental or quasi-experimental design) published between 2000 and 2016, researchers found several main aspects to examine: the effects of the collaboration itself; the effects of computer use during collaboration; the effects of extra technology-related learning tools used in CSCL, such as videoconferencing and sharing visuals with team partners; and strategies such as role assignment and peer feedback. Collaborative learning itself positively affected: Knowledge gain (ES= +0.42)Skill acquisition (ES= +0.62)Student perceptions of the experience (ES= +0.38) The use of computers, when combined with collaborative learning, positively affected: Knowledge gain (ES= +0.45)Skill acquisition (ES= +0.53)Student perceptions (ES= +0.51)Group task performance (ES= +0.89)Social interaction (ES= +0.57)  Lastly, extra technology-related learning tools during CSCL positively affected knowledge gain (ES= +0.55), as did the use of strategies (ES= +0.38). Source : Chen, J., Wang, M., Kirschner, P. A., & Tsai, C.-C. (2018). The role...

28 02 2019