卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Effective Teaching Approach

Order of instruction

A recent meta-analysis performed by Sinha and Kapur utilized 53 studies from around the world comparing the order of instruction for a range of learners, primarily focused on 2nd graders through undergraduate students.  The focus of the meta-analysis was to investigate outcomes for students exposed to learning that introduces problem solving prior to instruction (PS-I) compared with students exposed to learning that introduces instruction prior to problem solving (I-PS).  Arguments in favor of PS-I designs emphasize the acquisition of higher-order thinking skills developed by allowing students to grapple with concepts they have not yet formally studied, while arguments supporting I-PS designs suggest that direct instruction is needed to enable students to focus on the most important aspects of the material.  Within the broader category of PS-I designs, the authors focused on the effects of productive failure (PF), where the problem-solving portion of the lesson is specifically designed to result in...

17 09 2021
Does order matter?

A recent randomized control trial conducted by Sarama and colleagues compares the order of instructional activities promoted within a learning trajectories (LT) approach to a reverse-sequence (REV) design and a business-as-usual (BAU) design.  The LT approach operates under the assumption that a student learns best when content and activities are sequenced according to the children’s developmental progression or level of thinking.  In comparison, the theoretical approach of the REV design is supported by some research suggesting that challenging students with content beyond their current level of thinking may help them see the value in future instruction designed to facilitate their understanding of the challenging material. The study focused on the development of length measurement understanding and involved 185 kindergarten students, with 69 assigned to the LT condition, 59 assigned to the REV condition, and 57 assigned to the BAU condition.  Students assigned to the LT condition and REV condition received...

03 09 2021
Effectiveness of secondary reading programs

Secondary reading performance has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In a study published in Reading Research Quarterly, Baye and colleagues conducted a quantitative synthesis on the effectiveness of reading programs for secondary students. Sixty-nine studies that met high evidence standards were identified, including 62 randomized and 7 quasi-experimental designs. All studies included took place in the US and the UK. Fifty-one programs were evaluated across all studies. The examined programs were divided into 10 categories. Among them, 7 categories showed positive overall weighted outcomes, including tutoring interventions (ES=+0.24), cooperative learning (ES=+0.10), whole-school approaches (ES=+0.06), writing-focused approaches (ES=+0.13), content-focused approaches (ES=+0.08), strategy-focused instruction (ES=+0.09), and group/personalization rotation (ES=+0.09), whereas vocabulary-focused approaches, personalization approaches, and intensive group approaches demonstrated no statistically significant positive outcomes. Two cross-cutting factors, additional reading periods and technology applications, were also explored using random-effects models. The findings were as follows: No significant differences were found between studies providing extra reading...

18 06 2021
What works in mathematics for elementary school students?

A new review of research, conducted by the team at JHU’s Center for Research and Reform in Education and recently published in AERA Open, analyzes the best available international evidence on math programs for children in elementary school to find out what works in math teaching and learning. Eighty-seven studies of 66 programs were included in the review. Of these, 85% were randomized experiments and 15% were quasi-experiments. Results showed that: There were positive outcomes for tutoring programs (ES = +0.20), with larger effects for one-to-small group tutoring (ES = +0.30) compared to one-to-one tutoring (ES = +0.19). Similar outcomes were found for teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Professional development (PD) programs were effective when they focused on classroom organization and management (ES = +0.19), such as implementation of cooperative learning, or when they were intended to support the adoption of traditional (non-digital) curricula (ES = +0.12). No impact was found...

07 04 2021
Teaching strategies to improve science learning

A new systematic review in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching analyzes the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. It concludes that science teaching methods focused on enhancing teachers’ classroom instruction throughout the year, such as cooperative learning and science-reading integration, as well as approaches that give teachers technology tools to enhance instruction, have significant potential to improve science learning. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, study duration of at least four weeks, and the use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A total of 23 studies met these criteria. The findings were as follows:   Among studies evaluating inquiry-based teaching approaches, programs that used science kits did not show positive outcomes on science achievement measures (weighted ES=+0.02 in 7 studies), but inquiry-based programs that emphasized professional development but not kits did show positive outcomes (weighted ES=+0.36...

07 04 2021
What strategies help teachers get along with students?

Amicable student-teacher relationships (STRs) contribute to students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development. In order to facilitate positive STRs, it is important to understand effective practices from past rigorous studies. A recent meta-analysis, published in Review of Educational Research, aims to identify the most effective and the most common practice elements for school- and class-wide STR programs. This meta-analysis reviews randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs within the PreK-12 realm. After applying inclusion criteria, researchers from the University of Minnesota identified 21 studies and 13 unique STR programs. STR was measured by a teacher-reported 28-item scale that assessed their interpersonal relationships with students. On average, the combined weighted effect size shows that the included programs had a modest effect size on overall STR (ES=+0.26). The authors also highlighted two universal programs that demonstrate the largest effect sizes: Establish-Maintain-Restore(ES=+0.64) and BRIDGE (ES=+0.65). Apart from program-based analysis, the authors also explored the effectiveness of different practice types. Understandably, preventative...

27 01 2021
A systematic review of unstructured nature play in early childhood development

Physical activities are important to facilitate children's development. A recent systematic review by a team from the University of South Australia investigated whether playing in nature-based spaces could be beneficial for child health and development. Quantitative studies of children aged 2-12 years without health or developmental conditions examining unstructured nature play were included. The review identified 16 studies involving 711 children. Due to the diversity in study methods, the research applied descriptive synthesis. The outcome measures covered different domains including physical activity, motor, cognitive, and social emotional development. Results showed that: Despite the various measures in outcomes, there were consistent positive impacts of nature play on physical activity outcomes and cognitive play behaviors. However, five out of seven studies reported no significant differences regarding to physical activity in nature play compared to traditional play space experiences. The authors also expressed their concerns when interpreting the findings, which includes the evidence-base quality, the...

16 12 2020
The effects of school-wide interventions on school climate

Charlton and colleagues reviewed various types of school-wide interventions promoting students' and teachers' perception of school climate regarding engagement (quality of relationship), safety (the absence of aggression, bullying, and violence), and environment (quality of physical school environment). Only peer-reviewed studies published between 1989 and 2019 were included in this review. The total of 26 studies (28 papers) were identified, including 18 studies on elementary students, 7 studies on middle school students, and 2 studies in mixed school settings. More than 60% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. The included programs were categorized into five subcategories: social–emotional learning, schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, bullying prevention, community development, and teacher working conditions programs. Among the five subcategories, effect sizes for Schoolwide PBIS (a behaviour management approach) (ES=+0.61) and SEL (ES=+0.48) were the largest, followed by community development (ES=+0.42), and bullying prevention programs (ES=+0.27). A single study on a teacher working conditions program...

02 12 2020
The Cost-Benefit Case for Tutoring

Individual preK-12 tutoring experiments, varying widely in context, approach, and cost, have shown the positive impact of tutoring and small-group programs. However, a recent meta-analysis sought to summarize the findings of experimental studies since 1980. The study is the first systematic review or meta-analysis of experimental research on preK-12 tutoring interventions of all types. The authors defined tutoring as one-to-one or small-group human instruction aimed at supplementing rather than replacing classroom-based education. No correlational or quasi-experimental studies were included in this review. Through the search and screening process, 96 studies were included. The authors found that: Tutoring programs yield substantial positive impacts on learning outcomes, with an overall pooled effect size estimate of +0.37. Furthermore, effects are stronger on average for teacher and paraprofessional tutoring programs as opposed to nonprofessional and parent tutoring. Effects also tend to be strongest among the earlier grades. The main takeaways from this review are nothing new....

07 10 2020