卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Effective Teaching Approach

The role of the teacher during collaborative learning

A systematic review of the role of the teacher during collaborative learning in primary and secondary education suggests that several types of teacher guidance can be positive. However, the challenge for the teacher is to support interaction between students without taking control of the moments in which opportunities to learn arise for students. The review, carried out by Anouschka van Leeuwen and Jeroen Janssen, included both qualitative and quantitative studies (n=66) conducted in primary and secondary schools, and looked at the relationship between the teacher’s role and the processes and outcomes of collaboration among students. The authors found that Feedback, prompting, questioning, and transferring control of the learning process to students were all effective strategies for collaborative learning. In contrast, some aspects of teacher guidance were found negatively associated with students’ collaboration, such as when teachers were too present or absent.Teachers' explanations and modelling behavior were not always contributive to students' collaboration....

08 05 2019
Computer-supported collaborative learning

Juanjuan Chen and colleagues recently performed a meta-analysis on the effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Using 425 empirical studies (all of which used a controlled experimental or quasi-experimental design) published between 2000 and 2016, researchers found several main aspects to examine: the effects of the collaboration itself; the effects of computer use during collaboration; the effects of extra technology-related learning tools used in CSCL, such as videoconferencing and sharing visuals with team partners; and strategies such as role assignment and peer feedback. Collaborative learning itself positively affected: Knowledge gain (ES= +0.42)Skill acquisition (ES= +0.62)Student perceptions of the experience (ES= +0.38) The use of computers, when combined with collaborative learning, positively affected: Knowledge gain (ES= +0.45)Skill acquisition (ES= +0.53)Student perceptions (ES= +0.51)Group task performance (ES= +0.89)Social interaction (ES= +0.57)  Lastly, extra technology-related learning tools during CSCL positively affected knowledge gain (ES= +0.55), as did the use of strategies (ES= +0.38). Source : Chen, J., Wang, M., Kirschner, P. A., & Tsai, C.-C. (2018). The role...

28 02 2019
Self-explanation is often more effective than presenting students with an explanation

Researchers at Simon Fraser University in Canada conducted a meta-analysis on research that investigated learning outcomes for students who received self-explanation prompts while studying or solving problems. Self-explanation is a process by which students use prior knowledge to make inferences in order to fill in missing information or monitor understanding. Their study, published in Educational Psychological Review, examined 69 independent effect sizes from 64 studies (5,917 participants). Studies had to include a treatment condition in which learners were directed or prompted to self-explain during a learning task, with a comparison treatment where learners were directed not to self-explain. The measure was a cognitive outcome such as problem solving or comprehension. Learning activities were mostly of short duration (less than an hour) and carried out with undergraduate students. The analysis found that: There was a positive overall weighted mean effect size on learning outcomes for students who were prompted to self-explain compared...

01 01 2019
The effects of self-assessment

An article published in Educational Research Review has examined the effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning (SRL) and self-efficacy by conducting four meta-analyses. To understand the impact of students’ assessing their own work, Ernesto Panadero and colleagues from Spain analyzed 19 studies comprised of 2,305 students from primary schools to higher education. The meta-analyses only included studies published in English that contained empirical results of self-assessment intervention in relation to SRL and/or self-efficacy, had at least one control group, and had been peer-reviewed. The findings indicated that: Self-assessment had a positive effect on SRL strategies serving a positive self-regulatory function for students’ learning, such as meta-cognitive strategies (ES= +0.23)Self-assessment had a negative effect on “Negative SRL”, which is associated with negative emotions and stress and is thought to be adverse to students’ learning. (ES =-0.65)Self-assessment was also found positively associated with SRL even when SRL was measured qualitatively (ES= +0.43)Self-assessment had...

19 12 2018
Prerequisites for Assessment for Learning

A systematic review in the Educational Research Review has analyzed the evidence on prerequisites for implementing Assessment for Learning(AfL) in classroom practice. The aim was not to provide a “recipe for success,”but to generate a better understanding of what needs to be considered. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, nine were conducted in the context of primary education, ten in secondary, and six covered both. The results included data from eleven different countries, but most of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 9). The authors found that: The knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individual teachers influenced the establishment of an AfL-based learning environment. Pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge had an impact on a teacher’s ability to provide students with accurate and complete feedback. They also needed to have the ability to foster the participation of students in discussions about their answers, and construct questions that drew out...

19 12 2018
Effective programs in elementary math

Marta Pellegrini from the University of Florence and Cynthia Lake, Amanda Inns, and Robert Slavin from Johns Hopkins Center for Research and Reform in Education have released a new report on effective programs in elementary math. The report reviews research on the mathematics achievement outcomes of all programs with at least one study meeting the inclusion criteria of the review. A total of 78 studies were identified that evaluated 61 programs in grades K-5. The studies were very high in quality, with 65 (83%) randomized and 13 (17%) quasi-experimental evaluations. Key findings were as follows: Particularly positive outcomes were found for tutoring programs. One-to-one and one-to-small group models had equal impacts, as did teachers and paraprofessionals as tutors. Technology programs showed modest positive impacts. Professional development approaches focused on helping teachers gain in understanding of math content and pedagogy had no impact on student achievement, but more promising outcomes were seen in...

20 11 2018
Say hello, wave goodbye to behavior problems

A small-scale study by Clayton Cook and colleagues, published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, investigated the impact of a Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy. Ten language arts and math classrooms (from sixth to eighth grade) in two schools in the Pacific Northwest of the United States were identified that had low levels of academic engaged time (AET) and a high rate of disruptive and off-task behavior. In total, 203 students took part. A randomized block design was used to allocate the classes to intervention and control groups. Teachers of intervention classes were provided with training sessions and follow-up coaching on a PGD strategy (greeting the students by name, reminding students individually and collectively of behaviors for success, having a structure learning activity ready, and positively recognizing on-time behavior). Teachers in the control classes were given the same amount of time to talk with other teachers about their classroom...

20 11 2018
Teacher/parent communication an effective tool to help students succeed

A study from Harvard and Brown Universities shows that struggling students did better in school when their teachers communicated with their parents regularly, and suggested specific actions students could do to improve their grades. Researchers studied the effects of teacher/parent communication on the academic achievement of 435 struggling high school students enrolled in summer school to recover lost credits in English, history, math, or science two hours a day during a five-week program. Students were mostly Hispanic and African-American, and all were low-income. All students had to have been absent less than 30 days and to have received an “F+” in up to two courses. Students’ parents were randomly divided into three groups: the first group received a short weekly message from the teacher by phone, text, or email about what their child was doing well (positive); the second received a weekly teacher’s message about areas where their child needed improvement...

06 11 2018
Effects of shared book reading for young ELL children

A meta-analysis, published in Review of Educational Research, examines how shared book reading affects the English language and literacy skills of young English Language Learners (ELLs). Shared book reading involves an adult reading with one or more children, and is considered to be an effective practice for language and literacy development. It may also involve interactive practices such as dialogic reading techniques to engage children or reinforce specific ideas or words from the text. For this meta-analysis, Lisa Fitton and colleagues identified 54 studies of shared reading interventions conducted in the U.S. that met their inclusion criteria. The total number of participants across the studies was 3,989, with an average age of six. Results revealed that: There is an overall positive effect of shared reading on ELL outcomes (effect size = +0.28). Children’s developmental status moderated this effect, with larger effect sizes found in studies including only typically developing children (+0.48) than in...

24 10 2018