卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Stage

Does augmented reality promote learning outcomes?

Augmented reality (AR) technology emphasizes superimposing virtual information over the real environment to create a new context of learning.  Studies and research about the impact of using augmented reality (AR) continue to grow in number in the educational sector. By including a total of 134 (quasi-)experiment studies from 2012 to 2021, Chang and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of AR on three levels of learning outcomes: Response outcome: learners’ self-reported attitude to the AR learning environment, e.g., satisfaction, motivation, or perception of usefulness Knowledge and skill outcome: involves assessment tools to measure learners’ understanding and skills, e.g., literacy, numeracy, or reasoning. Performance outcome: how learners apply and transfer what they learned to the authentic situation, e.g., conduct scientific enquiry or operate a simulated medical survey. Results of the meta-analysis included: Comparing AR with non-AR, positive impacts of AR instruction were found on response outcome (g=+0.49), knowledge and...

20 01 2023
Does learning about oral language improve student literacy?

There is an accepted relationship between students’ oral language skills and their ability to master literacy skills in schools. The importance of developing oral language skills in the early years is important so that students can fully engage with instruction. However, to develop those skills, teachers must understand this relationship and support the development of oral language in their classrooms. One proposed approach to this is through professional learning that helps teachers develop new knowledge and beliefs as well as new pedagogy to address oral language development. A recent study by Goldfeld and colleagues tested whether the Classroom Promotion of Oral Language (CPOL) intervention, a teacher professional learning program focused on oral language in kindergarten and first grade, improved student literacy outcomes at the end of first and third grade. The study was conducted in Australia, in government and Catholic schools. A total of 36 schools were randomly assigned to...

20 01 2023
Writing instruction designed for deaf learners

A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) by Wolbers and colleagues evaluated the effect of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) on writing outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. SIWI, developed specifically for deaf learners, explicitly teaches the writing process, provides interactive and co-constructed writing opportunities, and helps learners develop metalinguistic and linguistic skills. The RCT included students in grades 3 through 5 randomly assigned to the treatment (n=43) or business as usual control condition (n=36). Participants were students from different educational environments across the country, including self-contained or pullout classes in public schools or schools for the deaf. Teachers in the treatment condition administered the writing intervention 2 hours per week for nine weeks. The study found that the treatment students outperformed the control students on writing to recount (ES=+3.32) and writing information (ES=+1.12). Additionally, treatment students were assessed nine weeks after the intervention period had...

20 01 2023
Digital divide in online learning in China

Online learning has drastically expanded in recent years. While some people believe there are certain advantages of online learning over traditional learning, others are concerned online learning will widen the inequality. Certainly, the online learning tsunami has created what is described as the “Digital divide”, which refers to the differences in access to, use of, and skills in information and communication technology (ICT) among different social groups. A study by Guo and Wan examined equity issues in online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stratified sampling was conducted to draw sample data from the Online Learning Survey of High School Students. A total of 27,710 (49.7% boys) students’ responses from 164 high schools in 10 provinces was included in the study. Three levels of digital divide were assessed regarding students’ online learning during the pandemic: First-level digital divide refers to equipment and network conditions. Though 95% of students had...

06 01 2023
Research of the feasibility and sustainability of school-based vision programs (SBVP)

Because of the lack of health care for children in eye care, school-based vision programs (SBVP) have been implemented in 20 states across the US. These programs involve bringing mobile clinics into schools and providing comprehensive eye exams to detect the uncorrected refractive error needs of students who have not passed vision screening, and at the end of the exam, parents receive a letter of feedback on the student’s results. The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical outcomes of an SBVP program in the Baltimore City Public Schools and the implications, and challenges faced. First, the screening results found that SBVP worked for children who failed screening questions in the first year of the Vision for Baltimore (V4B) program. By collecting refractive error profiles, it was found that those students who did not wear glasses had a more severe refractive error, and those who wore glasses and...

06 01 2023
Independent measures and researcher-developer-made measures. How big is the difference?

A recent study by Wolf and Harbatkin examined the difference in terms of effect sizes between types of measures. To be considered in this review, the studies had to be carried out on reading, STEM, or behavior topics using randomized or quasi-experimental designs and be part of the What Works Clearinghouse repository. A total of 373 studies with 1553 effect sizes were included in the review. The measures used in each study were then classified in four categories: Independent broad: when the measure was not created by the same researchers/developers who conducted the study or designed the program and was intended to evaluate student achievement in a subject. Independent narrow: similar to the previous one but included measures intended to evaluate specific elements of a subject area. Non-independent developer: when the measure was created by the developer of the program under evaluation. Non-independent researcher: when the measure was created by...

06 01 2023
Effects of apps on early math and reading

While thousands of educational apps are available to students, teachers, and parents, relevant research studies on their effectiveness are still limited. A meta-analysis by Kim and colleagues reviewed findings of 6 intervention studies and 285 effect sizes to figure out the effectiveness of educational apps for children in preschool to Grade 3. Results yielded a mean effect size of +0.31 in both math and literacy. Although outcomes varied across studies, results from this meta-analysis summarized the overall impact of educational apps and examined potential moderator effects.   Source (Open Access): Kim, J., Gilbert, J., Yu, Q., & Gale, C. (2021). Measures matter: A meta-analysis of the effects of educational apps on preschool to grade 3 children’s literacy and math skills. AERA Open, 7, 23328584211004184. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211004183… Read the rest

06 01 2023
Effect of PROSPER-based intervention on mental health of preschool teachers

Given the already complex nature of the responsibilities of teachers, the anti-COVID-19 pandemic measures placed on teaching and learning activities raised further challenges and difficulties in the lives of teachers in Hong Kong. Evidence shows that the COVID-19 crisis negatively impacted teachers’ mental health resulting in outcomes such as stress and depression. Datu and colleagues conducted a randomized control trial to examine the impact of a PROSPER-based intervention on psychological outcomes among preschool teachers in Hong Kong. As an organizing tool for the implementation of Positive Education, the PROSPER framework nominates seven key elements which contribute to psychological well-being: positivity, relationships, outcomes (accomplishments), strengths, purpose, engagement, and resilience. The PROSPER-based intervention in this study was considered relevant to preventing maladaptive psychological states among teachers who are experiencing intense levels of stress during the pandemic crisis. A total of 76 participants was randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=36) and a...

23 12 2022
Mental health interventions targeted to support depression or anxiety

A recent meta-analysis by Zhang and colleagues evaluated the effectiveness of school-based mental health interventions on depression and anxiety outcomes. The meta-analysis included 29 studies evaluating 32 programs implemented in kindergarten through 12th grade. Most studies took place in Australia (41%) and the United States (28%). The study found that: Overall, interventions reduced depression and anxiety (ES=+0.24, p=0.002). Interventions administered in secondary schools had statistically significant mean effect sizes of +0.42 (p=0.006), while those administered at the elementary level did not produce significant results (ES=+0.06, p=0.547). Interventions with cognitive behavioral therapy elements significantly reduced the outcome of interest (ES=+0.33, p=0.002). Cognitive behavioral therapy can be implemented in clinical and school settings to help individuals learn to shift thinking and behavior patterns to better cope with issues such as depression and anxiety. With a growing need to address the mental well-being of youth, the findings from this study suggest programs that...

23 12 2022