卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Educational Stage

Cardinal number knowledge and finger counting

A recent pretest-training-posttest study of three-year-old numerical development by Orrantia and colleagues provides insight on the role of finger patterns in the acquisition of cardinality. The study consisted of 51 children randomly assigned to one of two separate classrooms, each with a similarly qualified teacher. The instructional technique practiced in the first classroom consisted of the teacher first labeling a set’s quantity on flashcard for the class, then having the class count the set aloud while the teacher pointed to each item, and finally having the children point to their own cards, count, and label. The authors identified this as the label-count-label (LCL) condition and effectively used this classroom as the control group. The technique in the second classroom followed the same pattern, but each step was supplemented with the teacher and students holding up the corresponding number of fingers for each quantity, which the authors identified as the LCL-plus-finger...

23 09 2022
Evaluation of an online computer programming training approach with precision feedback

Due to the rapid development of information technology, acquiring programming knowledge is growing in prominence, and computation thinking becomes a fundamental skill for children just like reading and math. Using the Two-Tier Test-Based Programming Training (T3PT) approach, Hwang and Tung developed an online learning system for beginners and conducted a quasi-experiment to examine the effect of the system on secondary school students’ computer programming learning. The Two-Tier Test-Based Programming Training (T3PT) consists of two tiers of questions: The first tier assesses students’ understanding of the programming concept The second tier investigates the reasons for students’ choice in the first tier test to detect whether students have misconceptions about the programming. The learning system then, based on students’ responses, provides timely precise feedback to students to enhance their understanding of the correct concepts of programming logic. Two classes of 99 eighth grade students (mean age = 14.2) from Taiwan were divided...

23 09 2022
The best of two worlds: A systematic review on combining real and virtual experiments in science education

A recent study published in the Review of Educational Research examined the relative effectiveness of combining real and virtual experiments versus a single type of experimentation, and which sequence of real and virtual experiments was most effective for the acquisition of scientific literacy. In contrast to previous reviews focusing on a comparison of real experiments (RE, hands-on with actual materials) versus virtual experiments (VE, interactive computer simulation), in this review the authors focused on the effects of combining RE and VE. The results were based on a sample of 42 studies meeting the inclusion criteria set. In relation to the relative effectiveness of combining real and virtual experiments compared with a single type of experimentation, the results showed that: Twenty-five of the 30 studies reported a significant advantage of the experimental groups that used RE and VE in combination, compared to control groups that used only one single experiment type...

23 09 2022
Addressing students’ needs to avoid assignment to special education

Research shows that students of color and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are disproportionately represented among those receiving special education services. Although special education is meant to provide students with individualized support, qualifying for special education services may negatively impact student outcomes. For example, teachers and parents may hold students in special education to low academic and behavioral standards. Further, students may perceive a stigma associated with receiving special education services. Thus, it is important to provide students with the proper support to decrease the likelihood that they will be incorrectly assigned to special education. Hingstman and colleagues conducted a systematic review of programs that tested whether they decreased the number of elementary school students assigned to special education. The review included 12 studies evaluating nine programs: four targeted academic and behavioral skills, three focused on academics, and two focused on behavior. The authors found that programs that included following...

23 09 2022
A study of arts integration

A recent study done by Kisida and colleagues examined the effects of integrating arts into students’ learning by measuring elementary-aged students’ learning outcomes after receiving a lesson on Arkansas state history through a theater performance. The authors suggest that arts integration has positive effects on a variety of subjects. This study recruited 1,892 students in grade 3-5 from 12 schools. Students were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were taken to see a theater performance on Arkansas state history produced by the Walton Arts Center. After the performance, all students took a test that included 13 multiple choice questions on the history content, a Likert-type survey to measure students’ interest in future theatre and performance arts consumption, and a 4-point Likert-type scored question to measure their interest in learning history and history empathy. The study found that experimental groups performed statistically significantly better in all aspects...

09 09 2022
The power of scaffolding in digital game-based learning

Digital game-based learning (DGBL) has become a popular instructional approach in recent years. Some researchers have suggested that scaffolding integrated in games can provide timely support that better facilitates students’ learning process and improves learning outcomes. On the contrary, other researchers have argued that an inappropriate scaffolding mechanism might result in negative impact. Cai and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis  to examine the effects of scaffolding in educational digital games on students’ learning achievement and to explore possible factors (moderators) which might contribute to the inconsistency of research findings. A total of 49 studies and 154 effect sizes used in the meta-analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria, namely experimental trial with treatment group playing DGBL with scaffolding and control group playing DGBL without scaffolding. Seven types of scaffolding were classified in the study. Reflection: learners asked to explain or reflect on their behaviour Feedback: Some information given to evaluate students’ performance Hints:...

09 09 2022
Sustaining content through literacy instruction to improve reading comprehension outcomes in the early grades

A recent longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) by Kim and colleagues evaluated the effect of the Model of Reading Engagement (MORE) intervention on the reading comprehension of early elementary students. The MORE intervention consisted of providing students in Grade 1 with 20 thematic content literacy lessons in science, providing related informational texts to read during the summer, and then building on the thematic content literacy with 45 additional lessons in Grade 2. The intervention was developed to expose students to increasingly complex information about a topic over time. Thus, students develop schemas, or ways of storing and retrieving knowledge, to comprehend new topics. The RCT was conducted over 12 months in 30 elementary schools with a sample of 1,176 students receiving the MORE intervention and 980 students assigned to business-as-usual literacy instruction. Teachers in the treatment condition received professional development and ongoing support from site-based literacy facilitators. Using audio recordings...

09 09 2022
Why do students cheat?

Academic cheating is a serious worldwide problem that begins during childhood. Inspired by nudge theory from behavior economics, researchers believe physical and verbal nudges can affect cheating rates among children. Zhao and colleagues conducted a study using a naturalistic experimental method to investigate the effects of a contextual factor - message about test difficulty - on academic cheating. Two possible motivations can lead to increased cheating with respect to the difficulty messages. Approach motivation: if students are informed that a test is difficult, cheating is a way to appear capable of academic success. Avoidance motivation: if they are informed that a test is easy, they may be motivated to cheat to avoid appearing incompetent. Researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the relation between messages of test difficulty and cheating behavior. A sample of 201 children (94 girls) from 6 eighth grade (mean age = 13.4 years) classes at a middle...

26 08 2022
The impact of parent-only interventions on child anxiety

Researchers have regarded parent-only interventions for childhood anxiety as an important alternative to resource and time intensive child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A meta-analysis by Jewell and colleagues aimed to investigate the efficacy of parent-only interventions in reducing symptoms of anxiety disorders in school-aged children. This systematic research examined five databases and identified 29 eligible studies published between 1999 and 2020. Across a diverse set of study designs, a total of 2,916 participants were included. Whilst most studies included parents of children with a range of anxiety diagnoses, five papers focused on specific diagnoses: separation anxiety, specific phobia of the dark, or selective mutism. Child ages ranged from 4 to 17 years. Twenty-three studies evaluated a CBT intervention with parents. Intervention duration ranged from 4 to 22 weeks, with the majority of interventions taking place over 10 or 12 weeks. To date, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis...

26 08 2022