卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

Does quality of instruction improve outcomes in early childhood education?

The Education Endowment Foundation in the U.K. has published an evaluation of a program that trains preschool teachers to improve children’s language outcomes. The Using Research Tools to Improve Language in the Early Years (URLEY) intervention is an evidence-based professional development program for preschool teachers. It is designed to improve teacher’s knowledge of how children learn and develop oral language skills, and how to support that learning through evidence-based practice. Teachers take part in five day-long professional development workshops in which they are introduced to evidence-based learning principles and research tools to evaluate and refine pedagogy and practice. In particular, teachers are taught to use Environment Rating Scales (ERS) —research-validated observational rating scales known to predict aspects of children’s development, with higher scores linked to improved math and English achievement. Teachers watched videos of effective practice and were supported to use the language principles and ERS to “tune in” to language-supporting practice....

07 04 2020
The evidence behind strategies to reduce absenteeism

Phyllis Jordan at FutureEd recently authored Attendance Playbook: Smart Solutions for Reducing Chronic Absenteeism, a report outlining strategies for reducing chronic absenteeism and the evidence behind each suggested strategy. The strategies are presented by Tier I, II, and III intervention levels as follows: Tier I Effective Messaging and Engagement (e.g., Nudging Parents and Students) Removing Barriers to Attendance (e.g., School-based Health Services) Improving School Climate (e.g., Relevant—and Culturally Relevant—Curriculum) Tier II Effective Messaging and Engagement (e.g., Early Warning) Removing Barriers to Attendance (e.g., Addressing Asthma) Tier III Including Truancy Courts, Interagency Case Management, and Housing Each strategy described is followed by a list of the evidence supporting it, ranked by ESSA evidence strength (strong, moderate, promising, emerging), with a link to each report. Short descriptions of schools and districts using the strategies are also included.   Source (Open Access): Jordan, P. (2019). Attendance playbook: Smart solutions for reducing chronic absenteeism. Washington,...

07 04 2020
Math homework effort: Increasing autonomous motivation through support from family and school

An article published in Frontiers in Psychology examined how math homework effort among middle school students is influenced by adult support from family and school. The authors hypothesized that support from parents and teachers could promote the autonomous motivation of students by providing a sense of having free choice, and by generating interest.   A questionnaire was distributed to 666 seventh and eighth graders from three schools in Hubei Province of China. The questionnaire sought information about students’ math homework effort, autonomous motivation, math teacher support, and parental autonomy support. The results were as follows: Students perceived that parental autonomy support and math teachers’ support facilitated students’ autonomous motivation, which in turn enhanced their effort in homework. Furthermore, students perceived that parental autonomy support directly promoted their math homework effort. The authors concluded that parents and teachers should provide more support for middle school students’ math learning. Specifically, they provided three...

10 03 2020
Improving behavior in schools

Social and motivational outcomes, Educational administration and leadership The Education Endowment Foundation in the U.K. has published a review of the current evidence on approaches to behavior in schools. The review, which was carried out by researchers at the University of Exeter, synthesizes the best available international evidence on approaches to behavior in schools. The goal is to: Explain why students may misbehave Review what types of classroom management approaches are most effective Review what types of school-wide management approaches are most effective The report, which offers schools some recommendations for improving behavior, suggests that universal systems are unlikely to work for all students, and for those students who need more intensive support with their behavior, a personalized approach is likely to be better.     Source (Open Access): Moore, D., Benham-Clarke, S., Kenchington, R., Boyle, C., Ford, T., Hayes, R., & Rogers, M. (2019). Improving behaviour in schools: Evidence review. London,...

10 03 2020
Preschool teachers’ personality and their beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices

A recent study published in the Frontiers in Psychology examined how teachers’ beliefs and practices were related to their personality in preschool settings. Among a sample of 544 preschool teachers in Hong Kong, which included pre-service and in-service teachers, Wong (2019) used questionnaires to examine how teachers’ beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices were related to their personality. The questionnaire included the Myer–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is a personality inventory that measures four dimensions of personality, namely “Extroversion-Introversion,” “Sensing-Intuition,” “Thinking-Feeling” and “Judging-Perceiving.” Moreover, the Teacher Beliefs and Practices Survey was used to measure teachers’ beliefs and their instructional activities about developmentally appropriate practices. The findings were as follows: The predominant personality type profiles of preschool teachers were ” Sensing-Feeling-Judging”. The in-service teachers in the sample were characterized by the dominance of sensing (86.7%), feeling (64.0%), and judging (83.4%). Extroverted and intuitive teachers tended to hold stronger beliefs in developmentally appropriate...

25 02 2020
Link between positive teacher-student relationships and good behavior in teens

A study has found that having a positive relationship with a teacher when a child is 10 to 11 years old can be linked to “prosocial” behaviors such as cooperation and altruism, as well as a reduction in problem classroom behaviors such as aggression and oppositional behavior. The study used data from a major longitudinal study of Swiss youth among a culturally diverse sample of 7 to 15 year olds, and involved 1,067 students randomly sampled across 56 of the city’s schools. Only students who experienced a change of teacher when the student was 9 or 10 were used for the study, with data gathered from teachers, students, and their parents on an annual and later biannual basis. Using this data, Ingrid Obsuth and her team were able to “score” the children on over 100 different characteristics or experiences that could potentially account for good or bad behavior. They then matched students in...

12 02 2020
High hopes for good behavior

A review, published in Review of Educational Research, analyzes the evidence on The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a classroom management program that has been used (and studied) for 40 years. Strategies in the program include acknowledging appropriate behavior, teaching classroom rules, providing feedback about inappropriate behavior, verbal praise, and providing rewards as reinforcement. A total of 22 studies met the authors’ inclusion criteria. In these, the program was mainly being used in mainstream elementary schools with externalizing, challenging behaviors (e.g., disruptive behavior, off-task behavior, aggression, talking out, and out-of-seat behaviors). The review aimed to describe and quantify the effect of the GBG on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings. The findings suggested that: The GBG had moderate to large effects on a range of challenging behaviors, and that these effects were immediate. Correct application of reward procedures was found to be important for intervention effectiveness. The authors note that...

12 02 2020
Examining teachers’ response to chaos in the classroom

An article co-authored by Johns Hopkins School of Education’s Lieny Jeon reports that teachers need emotional support to manage chaotic classrooms. The finding comes from a study Jeon and her colleagues conducted that examined the role of teachers’ emotional abilities and classroom environments in how teachers respond to children’s negative emotions and disruptive behavior. The researchers sampled 1,129 teachers working with preschoolers in child-care centers or public pre-K programs across the U.S. Using a survey, the teachers were asked to rate their perceptions of environmental chaos and their responsiveness to children in early childcare settings. The researchers found that Childcare chaos (e.g., crowdedness, unpredictability, and lack of routines and rules) was directly associated with teachers’ non-supportive reactions (e.g., distress reactions and punitive reactions) after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic childcare settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn was associated with...

12 02 2020
Classroom management interventions made a difference

A meta-analysis of classroom management interventions has found that they improved academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes. Published in the Review of Educational Research, the study included 54 classroom management interventions in 47 studies published between 2003 and 2013. It included some interventions that had been evaluated several times (including Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), the Good Behavior Game, and Zippy’s Friends). About three-quarters of the studies were carried out in the U.S., with the remainder in Europe and Canada. Most interventions were focused on changing students’ behavior (85%), improving students’ social-emotional development (74%), or changing teachers’ behavior (54%). Only two interventions were specifically targeted to improving teacher–student relationships. The analysis found that: There was an overall effect size of +0.22 for the interventions, with a slightly higher effect on behavior (+0.24), and less on social-emotional (+0.21) and academic (+0.17) outcomes. There was no significant effect on motivational outcomes. The analysis also indicated that...

12 02 2020