卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

Effects of SWPBS Undetectable in the Long-Term

Interventions that focus on the reduction of problem behaviors and support of emotional well-being and social relationships have become increasingly popular around the globe over the past two decades. One such program, School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) has a solid base of evidence for improving social, emotional, and academic outcomes in the short-term. However, there is still little evidence regarding the long-term effects of this popular intervention. Borgen and colleagues examined the long-term effects of SWPBS on students’ academic failure and marginalization. Specifically, they examined short-term test scores and long-term academic grades, high school dropout, school behavior, and youth crime using population-wide Norwegian register data (N = 964,924). All Norwegian primary schools (grades 1–7) were included in the study (N = 2,366), where 216 of the schools in our sample (9%) had implemented SWPBS. The authors compared these individual-level variables between students who had attended SWPBS schools with those...

15 10 2021
Are extracurricular activities for preschoolers worthwhile?

In China, preparing children for primary school transition has been recognized as one of the motives to enroll preschoolers in organized extracurricular activities (EA). A longitudinal study recently published in Journal of School Psychology investigated the associations between EA participation and various school readiness outcomes for Chinese preschoolers.  A total of 345 children (age 3-4 at T1) enrolled in 12 public preschools from middle-class families in urban Shanghai provided data on EA participation. Parents completed questionnaires about their children’s EA participation at three time points (T1=November 2017; T2= November 2018; T3=May 2019). At T1, assessment was conducted to obtain children’s baseline development.  At T3 children’s school readiness skill outcomes, including receptive vocabulary, Chinese reading, expressive language, and early math skills were measured. Parents reported their children’s social-emotional development. EA participation was assessed in two scales, breadth and intensity. EA breadth was defined as number of EA types that a child...

20 08 2021
Students with learning difficulties in inclusive education

A recent meta-analysis published in Review of Educational Research examined the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of students with general learning difficulties (GLD) in inclusive education. Students with GLD are those with general difficulties in learning that affect their performance in most school subjects. The purpose of the review was to answer: Do students with GLD and their peers benefit from inclusive education? The review included studies that compared students with GLD and their peers in inclusive settings and segregated settings. The studies had to evaluate the effects on cognitive outcomes, such as performance on standardized tests and metacognition, as well as psychosocial outcomes, such as social, attitudinal, emotional, and motivational aspects. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that: On average, students with GLD in inclusive education had larger cognitive outcomes compared to similar students in segregated settings (ES = +0.35, p < .001). With regard to psychosocial outcomes,...

20 08 2021
Encourage family support to improve outcomes

A new review from MDRC analyzes the evidence on how families’ involvement in children’s learning and development affects literacy, mathematics, and social-emotional skills at ages 3 to 8. A total of 95 studies, primarily from the last 10 years, were included. Four categories were considered: learning activities at home, family involvement at school, school outreach to engage families, and supportive parenting activities. The review found that: Overall family involvement had small to moderate effects on children’s outcomes. Numerous studies confirmed a link between family involvement and children’s literacy skills. A number of studies also demonstrated positive associations with children’s mathematics skills, and a few with children’s social-emotional skills. The weakest association was between family involvement at school and children’s outcomes. The review concludes that family involvement is potentially important in terms of efforts to improve children’s early learning and development, particularly as all parents, when given direction, can increase their involvement...

30 06 2021
How teacher’s emotional support and parental warm support affect students’ academic achievement

The relationship between parental warm support, a type of parent-child relationship, and students’ academic achievement has been well established. A two-wave longitudinal study published in Current psychology examines the mediating role of self-control and the moderating role of teacher emotional support among Chinese adolescents on this well-known link. About 2500 students from 7th and 8th grade in China completed a self-report questionnaire at two timepoints (baseline and one year later). The questionnaire contained measures of parental warm support, self-control, and teacher emotional support. Mid-term examination scores for three main disciplines, i.e., Chinese, Mathematics, and English, were combined as an achievement index. Results suggested that: Adolescents with higher parental warm support tended to have higher academic achievement one year later. The link was positively mediated by self-control. That is parental warm support heightened adolescents’ self-control, and in turn increased their academic achievement one year later. Additionally, when teacher emotional support was...

30 06 2021
How do mindsets affect Chinese Primary School Students’ Math Achievement?

While the importance of STEM education has been increasingly emphasized, many still believe that mathematics ability is innate. In an article recently published in Frontiers in Psychology, Su and colleagues examined how mindsets affected Chinese primary school students’ math achievement. There were 466 fifth graders from two public primary schools in Urumqi who participated in this study. Participants completed a survey assessing their intelligence mindsets, math self-efficacy, and failure beliefs. The study also obtained their math achievement by the Urumqi’s assessment of education quality in the spring term of fifth grade. The analysis showed that: Male students’ math self-efficacy and level of growth mindsets were significantly higher than female students. However, male students were not different to female students in levels of failure beliefs and math grades. Growth mindset had a significant positive effect on math achievement, which were mediated by math self-efficacy and failure beliefs. The authors suggested that...

18 06 2021
How did kindergarten teachers’ self-efficacy lead to children’s social skills?

Teachers’ efficacy is regarded as essential for the delivery of high-quality education. A recent research published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly examined how kindergarten teachers’ self-efficacy can affect children’s social skills through the classroom process quality, especially teacher-child interaction. 5,628 children and their teachers from 180 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. The class sizes varied from 7 to 58 children per class. Teachers were surveyed about their teacher self-efficacy. Children’s social skills were assessed by their parents using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales. From the videos covering the major routines of the kindergartens, five randomly selected, 20 minutes observation cycles were extracted for trained observers to assess the teacher-child interaction quality with the CLASS observational tool. The analysis showed that: Classroom organization, instead of emotion support and instructional support, significantly mediated teachers’ self-efficacy for classroom management and children’s social skills. Classroom organization also significantly mediated teacher self-efficacy for...

18 05 2021
Do teachers benefit from delivering an SEL intervention?

A Canadian study explored the impact on teachers of delivering a mindfulness-based social-emotional learning (SEL) program called MindUp with additional teacher training on trauma-informed practice. The study included 41 teachers in the control group and 71 teachers in the intervention group, composed of 45 teachers who delivered the intervention for one year, and 26 teachers who delivered the intervention for two years. Both groups included K-12 teachers and early childhood educators. Intervention teachers received a half-day in-person training on trauma-informed practice, and a full-day in-person MindUP training, in addition to another full-day extension training in the spring. The training for MindUp was offered by a trainer from the organization managing the program. After receiving the trainings, intervention teachers implemented MindUP in their classrooms throughout the school year. The intervention involved 15 weekly lessons and the implementation of core practice of the program three times a day. Comparison teachers received the same...

18 05 2021
How did different types of anxiety affect psychological well-being and academic outcomes?

An article recently published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence investigated how different types of anxiety symptoms influence students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement. 715 third or fourth graders in China were recruited for the study. They completed measures of anxiety every six months in three years. The measure covered five dimensions of anxiety, including panic disorder, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety, and school anxiety. Students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement were assessed in the third year of the study. The findings showed that: Students in the moderately high with predominant generalized and social anxiety group reported the lowest level of psychological well-being as the congruent-high group did. Their life satisfaction and self-esteem levels were the lowest, while they displayed the highest levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Students in the group of congruent-low anxiety and moderately low with predominant social anxiety showed the highest academic achievement....

18 05 2021