卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

More evidence for growth mindset

The findings of an MDRC evaluation of a growth mindset intervention have suggested a positive impact on students’ academic performance. To test whether a growth mindset intervention could improve students’ academic performance, the National Study of Learning Mindsets implemented a randomized controlled trial of a low-cost growth mindset intervention specifically designed for ninth grade students. The intervention included two 25-minute self-administered online training modules on the topic of brain development. Students in the intervention group were given modules about growth mindset and were asked to answer reflective questions in a survey. Instead of learning about the brain’s malleability, students in the control group learned about basic brain functions, and they were also asked to answer survey questions. The results of the evaluation found a positive impact on students’ average grade point average (GPA) (effect size = +0.04), as well as their math GPA (effect size = +0.05). Other results from the evaluation...

15 01 2020
Promoting emotional intelligence and positive emotions in foreign language classrooms

A study published recently in Frontiers in Psychology explored whether emotional intelligence and classroom motivation in foreign language classrooms can be improved by positive psychology intervention. This study was conducted in two classes from a high school in China. The two classes, taught by the same English teacher, were randomly assigned as the intervention group consisting of 56 students and the control group consisting of 52 students For the intervention group, a six-week emotional intelligence intervention was implemented, consisting of one hour of ARGUER training of emotional intelligence each week, along with keeping a weekday diary, and reflection. Themes of the six sessions of ARGUER training were: Awareness of feelings and emotions in self and others Recognizing emotions in self and others Generating positive emotions that facilitate thinking Understanding causes and consequences of emotions in self and others Expressing emotions appropriately Regulating emotions in self and others effectively Students’ weekday...

15 01 2020
Effects of different rewards on spelling scores and prosocial behavior

A study published in Educational Psychology examines how different approaches to rewarding students affected their spelling scores and prosocial behavior for different ability levels. A total of 1,005 students, aged 9 and 10, in 28 classes were recruited from three primary schools in Singapore. Classes were randomly assigned to one of five reward conditions: competitive, cooperative, individualistic, cooperative-competitive, and cooperative-individualistic. An ABABA (A= implementation, B = withdrawal) design was used for each condition, and students’ spelling scores were tracked over a period of 10 weeks. Teachers were asked to rate students’ prosocial behavior before and after the study. The results showed that The different conditions did affect students’ spelling scores and prosocial behavior, but that these effects depended on ability level, such that different conditions were more effective for different ability levels.  Across all five conditions, only the cooperative-competitive condition resulted in increased spelling scores and prosocial behavior across all three ability groups,...

30 12 2019
The reciprocal effects of homework self-concept, interest and effort on math achievement

Math achievement has been thought to be interrelated with self-concept, interest and effort. In a recent longitudinal study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology, researchers examined how they influence each other over time using a sample of Grade 8 students in China.  702 students in Grade 8 from 14 classes in two public schools in East and South China completed an assessment of their math achievement, homework self-concept, interest, and effort at six weeks after the start of the school year and at the end of the school year. The analysis showed that:  Reciprocal effects were found between math self-concept and achievement, effort and achievement, as well as interest and effort.  In particular, the authors found that higher homework interest led to a higher subsequent effort, and higher prior effort could promote higher homework interest.  Moreover, self-concept had no significant effect on subsequent interest, but prior interest led to higher self-concept, possibly reflecting...

18 12 2019
Can school readiness tests predict future success in school?

A study published in School Psychology investigates the importance of screening children for their readiness for kindergarten, and how effective this is at predicting outcomes in first grade. Nineteen kindergarten teachers and 350 children from six schools in Missouri took part in the study. Teachers completed a kindergarten academic and behavior readiness screener at the beginning of the academic year. Melissa Stormont and colleagues then compared student scores from the screening tool to their performance on a math and reading achievement test, and to teacher ratings of their social and emotional skills 18 months later. The results showed that Children with poor academic readiness were more than 9 to 10 times more likely to have low reading scores at the end of their first grade year. Similarly, children who rated poor in behavior readiness were six times more likely to be rated as having displayed disruptive behavior and poor social skills by their...

18 12 2019
Long-term effects of social-emotional learning

A study published in AERA Open looks at the long-term effects of the INSIGHTS program – a social-emotional learning intervention that supports children’s ability to self-regulate by enhancing their attention and behavior management. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 22 elementary schools from three New York City school districts were randomly assigned to participate in the INSIGHTS program or to an attention-control condition (an after-school reading program). A previous study found that the INSIGHTS program reduced children’s disruptive behavior and increased behavioral engagement by the end of first grade. This study uses administrative data for those students to examine whether receiving the intervention in kindergarten and first grade had any impact on provision of special education services or grade retention by the end of fifth grade. The study also considers whether impacts varied for low- versus high-income students. The findings suggest that: Students in the INSIGHTS program were less likely to receive special education services between kindergarten...

20 11 2019
Evidence on the long-term effects of home visiting programs

Children from low-income families are more likely than those from higher-income families to have poor social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes. One approach that has helped parents and their young children is home visiting, which provides information, resources, and support to expectant parents and families with young children. This MDRC brief summarizes prior evidence on the effects of four evidence-based models of home visiting using information from seven studies of families with children ages 5 to 21. Specifically, the brief looks at what the effects of home visiting are for families as children get older, and how monetary benefits of home visiting compare with their costs. The key findings of the briefing report include: Evidence-based home visiting has improved outcomes for parents and children across a wide range of child ages, outcome areas, and national models Evidence-based home visiting appears to be cost-effective in the long term The largest benefits from...

20 11 2019
Future Planning and Achievement among Chinese students

Several studies have indicated the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how students plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between Chinese junior high school students’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains. This study conducted three assessments six months apart from Spring 2014 to Spring 2015 in Shandong Province in eastern China. Seven hundred and seventy-five students from sixth to eighth grades participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured students’ future explorations, commitments, and their affects concerning future education and occupation. Data of their academic achievement were collected from school records of their scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The relationships were analyzed with data collected at different times. The analysis showed that: There were reciprocal relations between academic achievement and Chinese...

06 11 2019
Improving attendance by improving school conditions

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a student missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that students are not getting the support they need. The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and student social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance. The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.   Source (Open Access) : Chang, H.N., Osher, D., Schanfield, M., Sundius, J. & Bauer, L. (2019). Using Chronic...

06 11 2019