卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

The impact of parent-only interventions on child anxiety

Researchers have regarded parent-only interventions for childhood anxiety as an important alternative to resource and time intensive child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A meta-analysis by Jewell and colleagues aimed to investigate the efficacy of parent-only interventions in reducing symptoms of anxiety disorders in school-aged children. This systematic research examined five databases and identified 29 eligible studies published between 1999 and 2020. Across a diverse set of study designs, a total of 2,916 participants were included. Whilst most studies included parents of children with a range of anxiety diagnoses, five papers focused on specific diagnoses: separation anxiety, specific phobia of the dark, or selective mutism. Child ages ranged from 4 to 17 years. Twenty-three studies evaluated a CBT intervention with parents. Intervention duration ranged from 4 to 22 weeks, with the majority of interventions taking place over 10 or 12 weeks. To date, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis...

26 08 2022
Evaluation of a social skills program for early elementary students: We Have Skills

A study from Smolkowski et al. (2022), published in January 2022 reported on an evaluation of We Have Skills and its impact on both students and teachers. We Have Skills (WHS) is a short, universal curriculum that focuses on improving early elementary students’ academic and social skills, in the meantime increasing teacher classroom management effectiveness.   From 2015 to 2019, 127 early elementary teachers and their 2,817 students from multiple states were randomly assigned to either an immediate-intervention condition or a no-additional-intervention condition. Teachers assigned to the intervention condition received the WHS curriculum as a package, which included videos, skill tickets, a detailed 166-page teacher’s guide, access to the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment (an online screening system), and a brief initial training. Teachers assigned to the control condition were asked to teach students as they normally would.   The results showed that observer impressions of student behavior were positive but...

30 07 2022
Bringing animals into the classroom: humane education for young children 

Modern-day children have been shown to have an egocentric tendency at an early stage of their cognitive and moral development. They seem to lack understanding of, sympathy for and appreciation of non-human animals and the ecosystem. In order to help children develop a pro-environmental perspective early, Ngai et al. launched a pilot study which involved establishing an animal-assisted school-based humane education programme - CARing Kids – in an attempt to educate children on empathy and prosocial behaviours through social and emotional learning (SEL).   The CARing Kids programme involved a canine-companion reading activity. A corpus of 110 students from two primary schools participated in six sessions of picture story book reading in the company of a canine, followed by a discussion of the story. This offered children the opportunity to have direct interaction with service canines to build up their empathy and kindness.    Analysis showed that students who joined the CARing...

08 07 2022
The effects of academic interventions on academic achievement and academic anxiety outcomes in elementary school children

A recent meta-analysis by Fishstrom and colleagues examined the effects of academic interventions on academic achievement and academic anxiety in students in kindergarten to Grade 6. The meta-analysis of 11 studies included 34 effect sizes, of which 17 were for academic achievement outcomes, and 17 were for academic anxiety outcomes. The results revealed statistically significant differences favoring academic treatments (g = 0.63, k = 11), consistent with existing research. In contrast, no statistically significant differences were found for academic anxiety outcomes (g = -0.06, k = 11). Despite the limitation of the small number of studies with elementary school students that met the criteria, and the difficulties in measuring academic anxiety, the study suggested that academic anxiety is not necessarily relieved by academic interventions.   Source: Fishstrom, S., Wang, H.-H., Bhat, B. H., Daniel, J., Dille, J., Capin, P., & Vaughn, S. (2022). A meta-analysis of the effects of academic...

08 07 2022
Embodied social-emotional learning in early childhood

School-based social emotional learning (SEL) programmes first emerged in North America and have gradually become an important component of early childhood education across the globe. In view of the nature of social-emotional competencies being inherently embodied and culturally responsive, the authors have proposed a bioecological and embodied framework for the development and implementation of a SEL curriculum, as shown in the figure below. (Adopted from Figure 1 in Hayashi et al., 2022) Following CASEL’s Framework for Systemic Social and Emotional Learning, they emphasized that the design of any SEL curriculum or program should consider the culture and adopt situated and embodied learning in order to allow children to be able to develop SEL competencies that are transferrable to or applied in other contexts, such as at home or in the community. As different cultures have differences in values, beliefs, and norms or customs, the interactions, behaviours, and engagements considered to...

30 06 2022
Does a preschool intervention work?

In 2003 and 2004, a team of researchers implemented a year-long social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention with 192 children within 22 classrooms within 12 Head Start programs. This intervention, called Head Start REDI, was an integration of PATHS, which is a well-known SEL intervention, and a daily interactive reading program using books aligned with PATHS’ social and emotional themes. Teachers in the intervention group received a four-day training and weekly mentoring. An additional 164 children within 22 classrooms within 13 Head Start programs served as a control group. Karen Bierman and her team followed these children after 8 to 10 years to estimate the long-term effects of the intervention. Among the original 356 children, 281 children (81%) were reassessed in this study. Children who were 4 years old at the time of intervention were in grades 7 and 9 when they were assessed again. The researchers found that children...

02 05 2022
Reading stories of struggle improves growth mindset of young adults-to-be

Individuals with a firm growth mindset hold the belief that their intelligence can be changed and developed through their own efforts. Such an attitude enables them to be more motivated to work hard, be more persistent in the face of setbacks, and leads them to higher achievements in academic learning. Du and colleagues are interested in whether adopting a story-based approach – asking students to read stories of role models – as a mindset intervention would be effective in enhancing the growth mindsets of young adults-to-be. In Du et al.’s study, they invited high school, undergraduate and postgraduate students to read stories of role models in a single session, and their mindsets were measured before and after reading the stories. The students were asked to read five short stories, in a row in one session, about great scientists, including physicists, mathematicians, biologists and therapists. The stories were about the important...

01 04 2022
Investigating strategies to increase teachers’ adherence to evidence-based social-emotional behaviour practices: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature

A recent study published in the Journal of School Psychology examined the use of implementation strategies to promote teachers’ adherence to evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting student social, emotional and behavioral (SEB) outcomes. After evaluating 28 articles and 122 effect sizes with a total of 15 unique implementation strategies, results indicated that, on average, implementation strategies were associated with improved adherence to SEB EBPs (g = 2.32, tau = 0.77) with moderate to large effect sizes. This is an important finding given the established link between fidelity and student outcomes. Implementation strategies targeting individual-level determinants (i.e., adherence) were most often delivered during the active implementation stage and most frequently involved the use of performance-based feedback. Moderator analysis indicated that larger effects were associated with implementation strategies that used a greater number of unique behavior change techniques (BCTs) (p < .001). BCTs included strategies such as directed practice, positive reinforcement, and adapting...

01 04 2022
For whom does the Good Behavior Game work?

There are ample evidence that social-emotional learning programs support behavioral and academic outcomes in students. However, few studies have looked at the “who” and “why” that make these programs work. In a study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, implementation variability and participant risk status were examined as predictors of disruptive behavior outcomes. In this large cluster randomized controlled trial, seventy-seven English primary schools (N = 3,084 children, aged 6–7) were assigned to either receive the Good Behavior Game or to continue with business-as-usual. The Good Behavior Game is a universal behavior management intervention that encourages students to monitor their behavior in return for tangible rewards. Due to the clustered nature of the data, hierarchical linear models were fitted to the data. This study used intent-to-treat as well as complier average causal effects samples to compare findings between the two. Interestingly, intent-to-treat analysis found no discernible impact...

11 03 2022