卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

How do mindsets affect Chinese Primary School Students’ Math Achievement?

While the importance of STEM education has been increasingly emphasized, many still believe that mathematics ability is innate. In an article recently published in Frontiers in Psychology, Su and colleagues examined how mindsets affected Chinese primary school students’ math achievement. There were 466 fifth graders from two public primary schools in Urumqi who participated in this study. Participants completed a survey assessing their intelligence mindsets, math self-efficacy, and failure beliefs. The study also obtained their math achievement by the Urumqi’s assessment of education quality in the spring term of fifth grade. The analysis showed that: Male students’ math self-efficacy and level of growth mindsets were significantly higher than female students. However, male students were not different to female students in levels of failure beliefs and math grades. Growth mindset had a significant positive effect on math achievement, which were mediated by math self-efficacy and failure beliefs. The authors suggested that...

18 06 2021
How did kindergarten teachers’ self-efficacy lead to children’s social skills?

Teachers’ efficacy is regarded as essential for the delivery of high-quality education. A recent research published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly examined how kindergarten teachers’ self-efficacy can affect children’s social skills through the classroom process quality, especially teacher-child interaction. 5,628 children and their teachers from 180 kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. The class sizes varied from 7 to 58 children per class. Teachers were surveyed about their teacher self-efficacy. Children’s social skills were assessed by their parents using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales. From the videos covering the major routines of the kindergartens, five randomly selected, 20 minutes observation cycles were extracted for trained observers to assess the teacher-child interaction quality with the CLASS observational tool. The analysis showed that: Classroom organization, instead of emotion support and instructional support, significantly mediated teachers’ self-efficacy for classroom management and children’s social skills. Classroom organization also significantly mediated teacher self-efficacy for...

18 05 2021
Do teachers benefit from delivering an SEL intervention?

A Canadian study explored the impact on teachers of delivering a mindfulness-based social-emotional learning (SEL) program called MindUp with additional teacher training on trauma-informed practice. The study included 41 teachers in the control group and 71 teachers in the intervention group, composed of 45 teachers who delivered the intervention for one year, and 26 teachers who delivered the intervention for two years. Both groups included K-12 teachers and early childhood educators. Intervention teachers received a half-day in-person training on trauma-informed practice, and a full-day in-person MindUP training, in addition to another full-day extension training in the spring. The training for MindUp was offered by a trainer from the organization managing the program. After receiving the trainings, intervention teachers implemented MindUP in their classrooms throughout the school year. The intervention involved 15 weekly lessons and the implementation of core practice of the program three times a day. Comparison teachers received the same...

18 05 2021
How did different types of anxiety affect psychological well-being and academic outcomes?

An article recently published in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence investigated how different types of anxiety symptoms influence students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement. 715 third or fourth graders in China were recruited for the study. They completed measures of anxiety every six months in three years. The measure covered five dimensions of anxiety, including panic disorder, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety, and school anxiety. Students’ psychological well-being and academic achievement were assessed in the third year of the study. The findings showed that: Students in the moderately high with predominant generalized and social anxiety group reported the lowest level of psychological well-being as the congruent-high group did. Their life satisfaction and self-esteem levels were the lowest, while they displayed the highest levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Students in the group of congruent-low anxiety and moderately low with predominant social anxiety showed the highest academic achievement....

18 05 2021
The relationship between school discipline and student self-control

A recent meta-analysis by Li and colleagues analyzed results from 68 studies to explore the relationship between school discipline and self-control in students ranging in age from preschool through high school.  The researchers broke the topic of school discipline into three subcategories to better understand the association of each aspect with student self-control.  The first of these components was structure, which emphasizes the clear and fair enforcement of school rules to manage student behavior.  The second component was support, which emphasizes the creation of a nurturing environment that is responsive to student needs and is designed to help students develop good behavior.  The third component was the teacher-student relationship, which emphasizes quality interactions between students and staff as a means of managing student behavior. The meta-analysis found that: There is evidence of a significant, positive association between school discipline and student self-control (r = 0.190, p < 0.001).  When comparing the...

18 05 2021
How did absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic affect student outcomes?

In March 2020, most schools in the United States transitioned to distance learning in an effort to contain COVID-19. During the transition, a significant number of students did not fully engage in remote learning opportunities due to resource or other constraints. An urgent question for schools around the nation is how much the pandemic impacted student outcomes. In a recent article published by Educational Researcher, the authors used administrative panel data from six large CORE Districts in California to approximate the impact of the pandemic by analyzing how absenteeism affected student outcomes. The results showed that: There were wide variation in absenteeism impacts on academic and social-emotional outcomes by grade and subgroup, as well as the cumulative effect of different degrees of absence.Student outcomes generally suffer more from absenteeism in mathematics than in English language arts.Negative effects are larger in middle school. Absences also negatively affect social-emotional development, particularly in middle school, which...

04 05 2021
Efficacy validation of a preschool SEL program

A well-known SEL program, First Step to Success, conducted an efficacy validation study of their updated intervention for preschool children, called First Step Next. A total of 160 classrooms within 50 Head Start and preschool programs in the United States were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control groups. Teachers in the intervention group received a one-day training on the intervention and the general principles of classroom management. Teachers provided the intervention to one selected child in each classroom screened to have high externalizing problems. A behavioral coach supported with modeling of implementation for the first 10 days, consultation, and supervision. Teachers in the control group received a 4-hour training on the general principles of classroom management and positive behavior support. There was a 104-day period on average between the collection of baseline data and the post-intervention data for the intervention group. Control teachers received training for the intervention in the...

21 04 2021
How do achievement goal profiles related to students’ academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety?

Students can have multiple achievement goals, which influence their development in several aspects. In an article recently published on Learning and Individual Differences, Hongrui Liu examined what achievement goal profiles were held by Chinese students and how these profiles were associated with learning-related outcomes. 1,518 students from 70 classes in five schools in Beijing completed a questionnaire that measured their achievement goals, academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The achievement goals being measured included mastery goals, performance approach goals, and performance avoidance goals. The authors later classified these goals into five achievement goals profile, labeling them as "high all," "low all," "moderate all," “mastery-oriented,” and “approach-oriented” for comparison. The results showed that: The mastery-orientated profile was more adaptive than the low and moderate all profiles as it exhibited lower academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The mastery-orientated profile was similar to the high all profile in terms of...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021