卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

How do achievement goal profiles related to students’ academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety?

Students can have multiple achievement goals, which influence their development in several aspects. In an article recently published on Learning and Individual Differences, Hongrui Liu examined what achievement goal profiles were held by Chinese students and how these profiles were associated with learning-related outcomes. 1,518 students from 70 classes in five schools in Beijing completed a questionnaire that measured their achievement goals, academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The achievement goals being measured included mastery goals, performance approach goals, and performance avoidance goals. The authors later classified these goals into five achievement goals profile, labeling them as "high all," "low all," "moderate all," “mastery-oriented,” and “approach-oriented” for comparison. The results showed that: The mastery-orientated profile was more adaptive than the low and moderate all profiles as it exhibited lower academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The mastery-orientated profile was similar to the high all profile in terms of...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021
Unexpected SEL benefits from Breakfast in the Classroom program

Social and motivational outcomes, Programme evaluation Breakfast In The Classroom (BIC) is a program in which all children receive breakfast in their homerooms while teachers take attendance, check homework, and prepare for the day. In a post by Child Trends’ Brandon Stratford and Michael Bradley, the authors described a study they did regarding the successes and challenges of implementing the Breakfast In The Classroom program, where they found an important and unexpected finding: BIC provided opportunities for students to develop their social-emotional learning skills. In the spring of 2018, Child Trends administered a survey that was completed by 368 individuals working in school districts in Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Texas. The survey covered topics ranging from respondents’ attitudes before starting BIC to the barriers and successes they experienced. Child Trends also conducted site visits in the spring and fall of 2018 in three school districts, visiting six schools altogether, and carrying out in-depth...

24 02 2021
The importance of hope to Chinese primary schools students

Previous research indicated that hope is a psychological strength that could help one to overcome obstacles. Recently, a research published on Learning and Individual Differences investigated that relationship between hope and academic achievement among a sample of Chinese primary school students. The study was conducted in a city in Southern China, with 949 students from third to fifth grades participated. Students participated in the study completed a questionnaire and was assessed of their academic performance for three consecutive semesters. The questionnaire was conducted in the middle of each semester, assessing students’ level of hope and behavioural engagement. Academic performance was measured by a single index based on students’ performance in the final exam for Chinese, English and Mathematics during the end of semesters.  The results showed that: The relationship between hope and academic achievement among Chinese primary school students was reciprocal. Students’ hope can predict later achievement, while achievement also...

24 02 2021
Can a classroom management program improve students’ social behaviors and academic achievement?

Achievement, Programme evaluation In an article published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Keith Herman and colleagues examined the effectiveness of the classroom management program CHAMPS on students’ social behaviors and academic achievement. CHAMPS is a teacher training program that focuses on six dimensions: Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, and Signal. The program provides teachers with training and coaching to support them in creating an effective classroom management plan. During the training, teachers learn how to promote responsible behaviors among their students and to preplan brief and calm ways to respond to misbehaviors. This study involved 101 sixth- to eighth- grade teachers and their 1,243 students in the Midwest. Teachers were randomly assigned to use CHAMPS in their classes for one school year (n=50) or to the control condition (n=51). Social behaviors were assessed using the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist and academic achievement was assessed through the administration of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)...

24 02 2021
INSIGHTS into academic achievement

Social-emotional learning (SEL), such as the ability to set goals and manage frustration, have been positively associated with academic outcomes. These findings have encouraged policymakers to implement programs that help students build up their SEL competencies. However, the jury is still out on how well these programs impact academic outcomes. For example, Duncan and colleagues (2007) examined multiple large-scale national datasets and failed to find any significant associations between early SEL skills and math or reading skills in third grade. Furthermore, there are relatively few studies of the long-term impact of SEL interventions on students’ outcomes. To address these two gaps in the literature, Meghan McCormick and colleagues looked into the long-term impact of the social-emotional learning (SEL) program, INSIGHTS. INSIGHTS facilitators use temperament as a lens to teach parents and teachers how to best respond to student behavior, as well as deliver empathy and problem-solving curricula to students. Students' baseline scores were...

24 02 2021
What strategies help teachers get along with students?

Amicable student-teacher relationships (STRs) contribute to students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development. In order to facilitate positive STRs, it is important to understand effective practices from past rigorous studies. A recent meta-analysis, published in Review of Educational Research, aims to identify the most effective and the most common practice elements for school- and class-wide STR programs. This meta-analysis reviews randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs within the PreK-12 realm. After applying inclusion criteria, researchers from the University of Minnesota identified 21 studies and 13 unique STR programs. STR was measured by a teacher-reported 28-item scale that assessed their interpersonal relationships with students. On average, the combined weighted effect size shows that the included programs had a modest effect size on overall STR (ES=+0.26). The authors also highlighted two universal programs that demonstrate the largest effect sizes: Establish-Maintain-Restore(ES=+0.64) and BRIDGE (ES=+0.65). Apart from program-based analysis, the authors also explored the effectiveness of different practice types. Understandably, preventative...

27 01 2021
Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies. A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’...

13 01 2021
Effects of an SEL and literacy development program

Harvard University’s Stephanie Jones and colleagues examined 2-year experimental impacts of a school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development, called the 4Rs, on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The 4Rs program, an intervention unique in its integration of literacy practices and social-emotional skill-building, has two components: literacy-based curriculum delivery in social-emotional learning and teacher training. Subjects were from 18 public New York City inner-city elementary schools (n= 9 treatment schools and 9 Control schools; treatment students =630 students, control students =554 students). The treatment group received both components of the intervention from 3rd to 5th grade. Results suggested that: Children in the intervention schools showed improvements in several non-cognitive domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depression, teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior.While there were no main effects of the intervention on teacher reports of children’s academic skills, those who were at...

13 01 2021