卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

Long-term effects of a socio-emotional learning program

INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament is a comprehensive school-based intervention with the aim of improving social-emotional skills and behaviors of students. This program involves teachers, parents, and children through sessions dedicated to each of these targets. In-class activities with students focus on empathy and problem-solving skills using puppets that exemplify temperament typologies. A recent article published in the Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness reported the long-term results of a group of students who participated in a two-year randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two elementary schools in New York City serving low SES students participated in the study. Students were in grades K-1 and more than 50% received free- or reduced-price lunch. Across a two-year study, the intervention was delivered for 10 weeks in kindergarten and for other 10 weeks in first grade. McCormick and colleagues focused on the follow-up outcomes of the group of students who received the intervention for two years. The authors accessed students’...

13 01 2021
Effects of an SEL and literacy development program

Harvard University’s Stephanie Jones and colleagues examined 2-year experimental impacts of a school-based intervention in social-emotional learning and literacy development, called the 4Rs, on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. The 4Rs program, an intervention unique in its integration of literacy practices and social-emotional skill-building, has two components: literacy-based curriculum delivery in social-emotional learning and teacher training. Subjects were from 18 public New York City inner-city elementary schools (n= 9 treatment schools and 9 Control schools; treatment students =630 students, control students =554 students). The treatment group received both components of the intervention from 3rd to 5th grade. Results suggested that: Children in the intervention schools showed improvements in several non-cognitive domains: self-reports of hostile attributional bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depression, teacher reports of attention skills, and aggressive and socially competent behavior.While there were no main effects of the intervention on teacher reports of children’s academic skills, those who were at...

13 01 2021
Students’ emotional regulation also matters to homework completion and math achievement

Homework completion and achievement can be affected by how students handle their emotions. An article recently published in Contemporary Educational Psychology examined the reciprocal effects of emotional regulation, homework completion, and math achievement on each other using a longitudinal design. The study was conducted in four public schools in China, from which 1,480 8th graders participated. These schools were regular schools in contrast to key schools which select high-achieving students. When the study began, 69.4% of participating students did math homework four days or more in a week and, on average, spent 34.5 minutes on that per day. Students completed a questionnaire about homework emotion regulation, including emotion management and cognitive reappraisal and were assessed for their homework completion and math achievement first at the beginning of November and again seven and a half months later. Standardized tests guided by national math curriculum standards in China were used to access...

13 01 2021
Private tutoring in China – Is it effective?

Private tutoring, which aims at enhancing student learning and achievement, has become a popular approach in education, especially in East Asia. According to the Chinese Society of Education, 137 million primary and middle school students were enrolled in after-school private tutoring in 2016. A recent study published in Children and Youth Services Review examined the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement, as well as emotional well-being and parent-child relationships, in Chinese junior high school students.  This study's data were from the 2014-15 cohort of the China Education Panel Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of junior high school students in China. A total of 9,449 junior high school students from 112 schools in mainland China participated in this cohort study. Students were asked whether they received private tutoring in either Chinese, English, or Mathematics and assessed their self-confidence, parent-child relationship, and depression. Students' midterm test scores in Chinese, English...

16 12 2020
A systematic review of unstructured nature play in early childhood development

Physical activities are important to facilitate children's development. A recent systematic review by a team from the University of South Australia investigated whether playing in nature-based spaces could be beneficial for child health and development. Quantitative studies of children aged 2-12 years without health or developmental conditions examining unstructured nature play were included. The review identified 16 studies involving 711 children. Due to the diversity in study methods, the research applied descriptive synthesis. The outcome measures covered different domains including physical activity, motor, cognitive, and social emotional development. Results showed that: Despite the various measures in outcomes, there were consistent positive impacts of nature play on physical activity outcomes and cognitive play behaviors. However, five out of seven studies reported no significant differences regarding to physical activity in nature play compared to traditional play space experiences. The authors also expressed their concerns when interpreting the findings, which includes the evidence-base quality, the...

16 12 2020
The power of texting: combating student absenteeism

With the prevalence of smartphones, text messaging has become a promising tool for connecting schools with parents more closely. A recent paper by the Institute of Education Sciences investigated the effects of an adaptive text messaging strategy on chronic absenteeism. The authors confirmed the potential of text messaging by demonstrating how it decreased chronic absence rates for all students by 2.4% to 3.6%. Using a randomized controlled trial, the study experimented with four versions of adaptive text messaging among 26,000 elementary school students. During the fall semester, groups one and two received messages about the benefits of attendance while groups three and four received messages about the consequences of absenteeism. During the spring semester, chronically absent students in groups one and three received extra personalized outreach messages from school staff but those in groups two and four received extra goal commitment messages. Goal commitment messages asked parents to set attendance goals for...

16 12 2020
How does teachers’ emotional labor relate to burnout and satisfaction?

Teaching is an emotional endeavor as teachers are expected to maintain proper emotional expression in their work. However, in some cases, emotional job demands can also be rewarding, depending on how one uses appropriate emotional labor strategies, including surface acting, deep acting, and expression of naturally felt emotion, one used. A metanalysis published in Educational Research Review comprehensively examined the relationship between teachers' use of emotional labor strategies and their antecedents (in terms of job characteristics and individual characteristics) and consequences (in terms of burnout and job satisfaction). To be included in the analysis, studies had to be quantitative studies written in English, conducted in a school setting using pure samples of school teachers, and reporting at least one correlation coefficient. 86 independent samples from 85 articles were included in the analysis, comprised of 33,248 teachers in total. The analysis demonstrated that emotional labor strategies were significantly related to burnout...

02 12 2020
The effects of school-wide interventions on school climate

Charlton and colleagues reviewed various types of school-wide interventions promoting students' and teachers' perception of school climate regarding engagement (quality of relationship), safety (the absence of aggression, bullying, and violence), and environment (quality of physical school environment). Only peer-reviewed studies published between 1989 and 2019 were included in this review. The total of 26 studies (28 papers) were identified, including 18 studies on elementary students, 7 studies on middle school students, and 2 studies in mixed school settings. More than 60% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. The included programs were categorized into five subcategories: social–emotional learning, schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, bullying prevention, community development, and teacher working conditions programs. Among the five subcategories, effect sizes for Schoolwide PBIS (a behaviour management approach) (ES=+0.61) and SEL (ES=+0.48) were the largest, followed by community development (ES=+0.42), and bullying prevention programs (ES=+0.27). A single study on a teacher working conditions program...

02 12 2020
Does growth-mindset intervention at scale work?

Students with growth mindsets believe their abilities are malleable through hard work, which in turn, will positively influence their school performance. A recent study by Ganimian evaluated the effects of a “growth-mindset” intervention at scale with Grade 12 students from 202 public secondary schools in Salta, Argentina. The intervention invited participants to read a passage showing evidence that one’s intelligence can be developed through practicing challenging tasks, followed by a brief exercise to help them internalize the idea. In this study, the participating schools were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n=102) and a control group (n=100). The treatment group received a single-session growth-mindset intervention during a non-academic period. Then, the survey and scores of the national assessment taken two months after the intervention were used as indicators of the Grade 12 students’ beliefs and school achievements. The study finds that: There is no significant evidence that the growth-mindset intervention can affect...

18 11 2020