卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

Does a preschool intervention work?

In 2003 and 2004, a team of researchers implemented a year-long social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention with 192 children within 22 classrooms within 12 Head Start programs. This intervention, called Head Start REDI, was an integration of PATHS, which is a well-known SEL intervention, and a daily interactive reading program using books aligned with PATHS’ social and emotional themes. Teachers in the intervention group received a four-day training and weekly mentoring. An additional 164 children within 22 classrooms within 13 Head Start programs served as a control group. Karen Bierman and her team followed these children after 8 to 10 years to estimate the long-term effects of the intervention. Among the original 356 children, 281 children (81%) were reassessed in this study. Children who were 4 years old at the time of intervention were in grades 7 and 9 when they were assessed again. The researchers found that children...

02 05 2022
Reading stories of struggle improves growth mindset of young adults-to-be

Individuals with a firm growth mindset hold the belief that their intelligence can be changed and developed through their own efforts. Such an attitude enables them to be more motivated to work hard, be more persistent in the face of setbacks, and leads them to higher achievements in academic learning. Du and colleagues are interested in whether adopting a story-based approach – asking students to read stories of role models – as a mindset intervention would be effective in enhancing the growth mindsets of young adults-to-be. In Du et al.’s study, they invited high school, undergraduate and postgraduate students to read stories of role models in a single session, and their mindsets were measured before and after reading the stories. The students were asked to read five short stories, in a row in one session, about great scientists, including physicists, mathematicians, biologists and therapists. The stories were about the important...

01 04 2022
Investigating strategies to increase teachers’ adherence to evidence-based social-emotional behaviour practices: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature

A recent study published in the Journal of School Psychology examined the use of implementation strategies to promote teachers’ adherence to evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting student social, emotional and behavioral (SEB) outcomes. After evaluating 28 articles and 122 effect sizes with a total of 15 unique implementation strategies, results indicated that, on average, implementation strategies were associated with improved adherence to SEB EBPs (g = 2.32, tau = 0.77) with moderate to large effect sizes. This is an important finding given the established link between fidelity and student outcomes. Implementation strategies targeting individual-level determinants (i.e., adherence) were most often delivered during the active implementation stage and most frequently involved the use of performance-based feedback. Moderator analysis indicated that larger effects were associated with implementation strategies that used a greater number of unique behavior change techniques (BCTs) (p < .001). BCTs included strategies such as directed practice, positive reinforcement, and adapting...

01 04 2022
For whom does the Good Behavior Game work?

There are ample evidence that social-emotional learning programs support behavioral and academic outcomes in students. However, few studies have looked at the “who” and “why” that make these programs work. In a study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, implementation variability and participant risk status were examined as predictors of disruptive behavior outcomes. In this large cluster randomized controlled trial, seventy-seven English primary schools (N = 3,084 children, aged 6–7) were assigned to either receive the Good Behavior Game or to continue with business-as-usual. The Good Behavior Game is a universal behavior management intervention that encourages students to monitor their behavior in return for tangible rewards. Due to the clustered nature of the data, hierarchical linear models were fitted to the data. This study used intent-to-treat as well as complier average causal effects samples to compare findings between the two. Interestingly, intent-to-treat analysis found no discernible impact...

11 03 2022
Is the extent of self-overestimation different between Chinese and Dutch children?

In the past few decades, there have been multiple studies showing that children often feel overconfident about their own competencies regarding handling new tasks and challenges. A recent study published in Child Development investigated the extent of self-overestimation among youngsters growing up in China and children in the Netherlands. Using both a memory task and a motor task, the researchers tracked the discrepancies between students’ estimated and actual performance across task trials. Two psychological explanations were explored: monitoring deficiency: young children are not yet capable of reliably monitoring and retaining information about their abilities and past performances. wishful thinking: young children often fail to reliably distinguish between their wishes and their expectations. Participants were children around aged 4 to 5. The study analyzed data from about 100 Chinese children from an urban area (Wenzhou City) and about 91 to 94 children from the Netherlands.  Children estimated the distance regarding ball...

25 02 2022
Effectiveness of BARR for students

A recent randomized evaluation conducted by Borman and colleagues investigated the effects of Building Assets, Reducing Risks (BARR) on student experience and academic outcomes. BARR is a model developed to address barriers to student success and consists of different strategies to build and improve relationships between staff, staff and students, and between students. Teachers and administrators in schools receive initial training and on-going coaching through observations and feedback on implementation. The study involved about 3,000 ninth graders from 11 American schools randomly assigned to receive the intervention over one year or to continue with their regular practice. Student academic achievement was measured through a standardized test, the Northwest Evaluation Association’s (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP). Student experience was evaluated only at posttest. Results showed significant positive effects for mathematics achievement (ES = +0.11) but no significant results in reading (ES = +0.06). The authors concluded that BARR is a...

25 02 2022
Adolescent behaviors and outcomes in early adulthood

A recent meta-analysis and narrative synthesis on the longitudinal association between psychosocial factors during adolescence and future participation in education and employment as a young adult was conducted by Tayfur and colleagues. The meta-analysis investigated the association between adolescent (age of 11 to 19) behavioral problems, peer problems, and prosocial skills with participation in education and employment between the ages of 18 to 25 at outcome. Analysis included 14 studies and used odds ratiosa as effect size to explore the associations. Five studies investigated self-reported behavioral problems—defined as rule-breaking, aggressiveness, and other disruptive or delinquent behavior—and its association with being defined as “not in education, employment or training” (NEET). The results demonstrated that behavioral problems in adolescence increased the risk of being NEET in young adulthood (OR = 1.48). Four studies investigated the association between peer problems—including bullying, violence, and other forms of peer aggression—and NEET. A significant small association...

11 02 2022
Does private tutoring benefit students in China?

Is the ‘herd behavior’ of attending private tutoring in China really beneficial for students? A recent paper examined the academic and psychological benefits of private supplemental tutoring in Chinese junior high school students. Using the 2013-2015 China Education Panel Survey, this study claims to be the first on private tutoring in China to use national-level panel data. Researchers adopted a quasi-experimental design to investigate the relationships between private tutoring and academic and psychological outcomes of junior high school students. The academic subjects of interest were Chinese, English, and Mathematics. Overall, private tutoring has small, negative association with academic scores (ES = -0.01), but a positive association with psychological outcomes. Private tutoring is disproportionately harming the total scores of boys and students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds (rural households with parents of non-elite occupations). However, private tutoring benefits students from advantaged socio-economic backgrounds and urban areas in Mathematics scores. The beneficial disparity...

21 01 2022
Predicting student self-determined motivation

A recent meta-analysis conducted by Bureau and colleagues seek to identify the strongest predictor of self-determined motivation in students by analyzing 144 studies consisting of a total of 79,079 participants (from primary school to university). The study situates itself within self-determination theory (SDT) which understands motivation on a continuum scale of level of self-determination, the highest level is intrinsic motivation, followed by extrinsic motivation. Amotivation is the third form of motivation considered non-self-determined. Extrinsic motivation is broken into three types: (a) identified regulation, a motivation to engage in activities that are personally meaningful, (b) introjected regulation, a motivation to engage in activities to assert pride or avoid shame, and (c) external regulation, a motivation to engage in activities to achieve a reward or avoid punishment. Besides five types of motivation, SDT also posits three psychological needs’ satisfaction which may foster of motivation: autonomy (student perception of learning freely and voluntarily)...

07 01 2022