卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Social and Motivational Outcomes

Future Planning and Achievement among Chinese students

Several studies have indicated the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how students plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between Chinese junior high school students’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains. This study conducted three assessments six months apart from Spring 2014 to Spring 2015 in Shandong Province in eastern China. Seven hundred and seventy-five students from sixth to eighth grades participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured students’ future explorations, commitments, and their affects concerning future education and occupation. Data of their academic achievement were collected from school records of their scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The relationships were analyzed with data collected at different times. The analysis showed that: There were reciprocal relations between academic achievement and Chinese...

06 11 2019
Improving attendance by improving school conditions

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a student missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that students are not getting the support they need. The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and student social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance. The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.   Source (Open Access) : Chang, H.N., Osher, D., Schanfield, M., Sundius, J. & Bauer, L. (2019). Using Chronic...

06 11 2019
Growth Mindset and Work Engagement of Chinese Teachers

Individuals with a growth mindset believe that abilities can be developed over time. While this concept has been gaining popularity for its impact on students, a recent study published in Frontiers in Psychology examined how a growth mindset is related to work engagement of Chinese middle school teachers. Using a questionnaire that contained measures of growth mindset, work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being, Zeng and colleagues examined the relationships of these factors with 472 teachers from 10 urban secondary schools in Chengdu city who participated in the study. They found that:  Growth mindset of teachers was strongly and positively correlated with work engagement, perseverance of effort and well-being. Growth mindset was positively associated with work engagement, while the relationship was also partially mediated by well-being and perseverance of effort. The authors suggested that despite the differences between Easterners and Westerners in cognitive styles, social orientation, values and motivation, the result demonstrated the benefit...

23 10 2019
A little help from your friends

An article in the British Journal of Psychology describes research into whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socioeconomically vulnerable young people. The authors conclude that such friendships facilitate resilience, and that at least one close friendship helps adolescents craft meaning and strength amid substantial adversity. A total of 409 participants aged 11 to 19 were recruited through three comprehensive secondary schools and two colleges in Yorkshire with deprived surrounding areas (n=394), and through an online mailing list for peer supporters (n=15). They completed self-reported measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed: There was a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalizing coping. There were gender differences. Perceived friendship quality...

08 10 2019
Does happiness make you rich?

An article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) has found that happy people tend to earn more. The authors used data from a large representative panel in the U.S., and looked at earnings approximately ten years after well-being was measured. They found that Adolescents and young adults who reported higher life satisfaction grew up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. The positive emotions and the experience of feeling happy at 16 and age 18, as well as life satisfaction at age 22 also predicted later earnings at age 29. This conclusion takes into account the possibility that people may imagine their future high socioeconomic status and that this might have a positive impact on their current well-being. Other factors, such as education, intelligence, physical health, and height were also taken into account in the analysis.   Source (Open...

08 10 2019
Research suggests link between well-being and achievement

Researchers from Queen’s University in Belfast have explored the relationship between well-being and academic achievement scores among primary school children, and found it to be statistically significant. These findings were based on data on academic achievement and a range of well-being indicators gathered through a cross-sectional survey of 1,081 students aged 7-11 in Northern Ireland. The team used six of the most common measures of well-being, covering psychological factors, school engagement factors, and family and peer relationship factors. The authors found that The positive relationship between well-being and achievement was the same for all children, regardless of their gender or socio-economic background. For Year 7 students who have high levels of wellbeing (a standard deviation above the sample mean), the predicted probability of achieving the expected national standard in English and Mathematics was 9.4 percentage point higher than those of low levels of wellbeing (a standard deviation below the sample mean). Neither...

08 10 2019
What makes children stressed?

A research report from the Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre in the UK looks at family “stressors” and the impact on children’s outcomes. The authors look at whether particular life events are especially detrimental, whether they have an impact across different outcomes (educational, social, etc.), and whether the effects of early childhood events persist into adolescence. They also look at the association between family factors and outcomes. The findings of the report are broad, especially as different family factors can be associated with different types of outcomes. Key findings include that Extreme stressful events, such as homelessness, victimization, or abuse, can have long-term effects on children’s outcomes. Some stressful events have an impact on children’s emotional and social well-being but not their educational outcomes, and so their negative impacts may therefore be harder to pick up. The authors point out that in order to target interventions, it is important to understand which...

08 10 2019
Reassessing concerns about school may help improve academic achievement

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences looks at what impact an intervention designed to help students with concerns about starting middle school has on their academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. Geoffrey D. Borman and colleagues conducted the study with 1,304 sixth graders at 11 middle schools in a U.S. Midwestern public school district. Within each of the 11 schools, students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention group was given reflective writing exercises, two months apart, which were designed to help students reassess any concerns and worries they might have about belonging in school. The control condition exercises asked students to write about neutral middle school experiences that were not related to school belonging. The researchers collected pre- and post-intervention survey data on students' reported social and emotional well-being, and official school records of student attendance, disciplinary records, and grades. The results of the...

24 09 2019
Effects of Positive Emotion Interventions on Chinese Adolescents

In recent years, interventions that apply positive psychology principles have become increasingly popular, providing an alternative approach to promoting students’ well-being. A recent research published in Frontiers in Psychology examined a positive education program in China focusing on positive emotion for middle school students” Participants were drawn from a public middle school in the city of Chengdu, China. A total of 173 eighth graders from six classes participated in this study, of which 84 were randomly allocated to the experiment group, and 89 were assigned in the control group. Students in the experiment group received a 10-session positive education program delivered by their head-teachers who received training in positive psychology from the researchers. The program consisted of three main modules, namely understanding emotions, fostering positive emotions and managing negative emotions. Each session lasted 45 minutes. Students in the control group spent the same time taking a moral education class that...

11 09 2019