卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Secondary School Education

How does students’ academic achievement relate to family socioeconomic status in China?

Academic achievement is thought to be influenced by family socioeconomic status (SES), but the relationship is also affected by government interventions. A meta-analysis recently published in Educational Psychology Review examined the relationship between family SES and academic achievement in China and whether year, grade level, type of SES measures, and subjects of academic achievement moderate that relationship. The analysis was based on data drawn from 215,649 students in 62 studies (78 independent samples). Studies included in the search process were those conducted from January 1979 to May 2017 written in English or Chinese. To be included in the analysis, studies needed to be focused on the relation between SES and academic achievement, contain sufficient statistical detail, and be carried out on students from kindergarten to senior high school in China. The meta-analysis excluded any duplicated data and studies containing obvious errors or insufficient information. The key findings were: SES is...

30 12 2020
The relationship of bilingualism and cognitive advantage

Compared to monolingual people, bilingual people are generally considered to have a cognitive advantage related to executive function (EF). A recent meta-analysis conducted by Gunnerud and colleagues investigated whether bilingual children had an advantage in EF by examining different components of inhibition, switching, attention, monitoring, working memory, and planning. 100 publications (between 1980 to 2017) were identified, which included 143 group comparisons and 583 effect sizes. The bilingual advantage was statistically significant in overall EF (ES=+0.06). The study further performed a moderator analysis to investigate whether a cognitive advantage could occur under certain conditions. Regarding sample characteristics, the results showed that: Socioeconomic status (SES) difference was a significant moderator variable, and middle-class SES children had a greater bilingual advantage than lower-class children (β=0.235; p =.017) and upper-middle-class children (β=0.230; p =.046). Also, results from one lab showed a significantly larger effect than the studies from other labs (β=0.153; p =.011). In terms...

30 12 2020
Open Science Comes to Meta-Analysis

Recently, a growing interest in transparency and reproducibility has led researchers and journals to lean more intently into the shift towards open science. This shift has been spurred by both the replication crisis in the social sciences and medicine, although meta-analysis has been relatively slow on the uptake. In a recent meta-review, Polanin and colleagues randomly selected 150 meta-analyses from the Psychological Bulletin and coded them for criteria that would facilitate reproduction of results. The authors contend that high visibility of data and methodology is important for three primary reasons: to support peer reviewers to check author analyses or run additional analyses on their own, to facilitate future meta-analysts to replicate or update the review with new studies or new statistical methods, and to allow for meta-reviews that may simply summarize the existing meta-analyses, or seek to examine the results from a substantively different angle (e.g. breaking up the results by grade level)....

30 12 2020
Private tutoring in China – Is it effective?

Private tutoring, which aims at enhancing student learning and achievement, has become a popular approach in education, especially in East Asia. According to the Chinese Society of Education, 137 million primary and middle school students were enrolled in after-school private tutoring in 2016. A recent study published in Children and Youth Services Review examined the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement, as well as emotional well-being and parent-child relationships, in Chinese junior high school students.  This study's data were from the 2014-15 cohort of the China Education Panel Survey, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of junior high school students in China. A total of 9,449 junior high school students from 112 schools in mainland China participated in this cohort study. Students were asked whether they received private tutoring in either Chinese, English, or Mathematics and assessed their self-confidence, parent-child relationship, and depression. Students' midterm test scores in Chinese, English...

16 12 2020
A systematic review of unstructured nature play in early childhood development

Physical activities are important to facilitate children's development. A recent systematic review by a team from the University of South Australia investigated whether playing in nature-based spaces could be beneficial for child health and development. Quantitative studies of children aged 2-12 years without health or developmental conditions examining unstructured nature play were included. The review identified 16 studies involving 711 children. Due to the diversity in study methods, the research applied descriptive synthesis. The outcome measures covered different domains including physical activity, motor, cognitive, and social emotional development. Results showed that: Despite the various measures in outcomes, there were consistent positive impacts of nature play on physical activity outcomes and cognitive play behaviors. However, five out of seven studies reported no significant differences regarding to physical activity in nature play compared to traditional play space experiences. The authors also expressed their concerns when interpreting the findings, which includes the evidence-base quality, the...

16 12 2020
How does teachers’ emotional labor relate to burnout and satisfaction?

Teaching is an emotional endeavor as teachers are expected to maintain proper emotional expression in their work. However, in some cases, emotional job demands can also be rewarding, depending on how one uses appropriate emotional labor strategies, including surface acting, deep acting, and expression of naturally felt emotion, one used. A metanalysis published in Educational Research Review comprehensively examined the relationship between teachers' use of emotional labor strategies and their antecedents (in terms of job characteristics and individual characteristics) and consequences (in terms of burnout and job satisfaction). To be included in the analysis, studies had to be quantitative studies written in English, conducted in a school setting using pure samples of school teachers, and reporting at least one correlation coefficient. 86 independent samples from 85 articles were included in the analysis, comprised of 33,248 teachers in total. The analysis demonstrated that emotional labor strategies were significantly related to burnout...

02 12 2020
The effects of school-wide interventions on school climate

Charlton and colleagues reviewed various types of school-wide interventions promoting students' and teachers' perception of school climate regarding engagement (quality of relationship), safety (the absence of aggression, bullying, and violence), and environment (quality of physical school environment). Only peer-reviewed studies published between 1989 and 2019 were included in this review. The total of 26 studies (28 papers) were identified, including 18 studies on elementary students, 7 studies on middle school students, and 2 studies in mixed school settings. More than 60% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. The included programs were categorized into five subcategories: social–emotional learning, schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, bullying prevention, community development, and teacher working conditions programs. Among the five subcategories, effect sizes for Schoolwide PBIS (a behaviour management approach) (ES=+0.61) and SEL (ES=+0.48) were the largest, followed by community development (ES=+0.42), and bullying prevention programs (ES=+0.27). A single study on a teacher working conditions program...

02 12 2020
Predictors of teacher turnover

A recently published meta-analysis of 120 studies about the predictors of teacher turnover confirms the influence of teachers' personal background and school working conditions. Teachers over 28 years old (odds ratio, OR = +0.70), Hispanic teachers (OR = +0.47), and traditional in certified teachers (OR = +0.53) are all less likely to leave. Teachers at schools with evaluation or merit pay systems (OR = +0.95, +0.78) or better working environments (OR = +0.56) are also less likely to leave. To prior reviews and frameworks of teacher turnover, this study adds a look at accountability and policy impacts (e.g., merit pay). Additionally, its findings imply changes in the labor market from prior reviews – such as the now null impact of teacher gender, Black race/ethnicity, and advanced degree, and school demographic makeup. Notable limitations, as acknowledged by the authors, include the limited number of studies of certain predictors (e.g. 1 study about retention...

02 12 2020
Teacher training routes lead to different outcomes

A study by the UK's Institute for Fiscal Studies examines the different costs, and likely outcomes, of various routes into teaching. In England there is a policy of increased school-led initial teacher training, moving away from traditional training in higher education (HE). Although the postgraduate HE route is still the most popular (approximately 40% of trainees each year), school-led approaches such as School Direct, which employs prospective teachers as they learn on the job (more than 30%), and Teach First, the UK version of Teach for America  (5%), are growing. The study used data from the School Workforce Census, an annual record of the school workforce in state-funded schools in England, between 2010 and 2014. This allowed the researchers to track the progress of early career trainees. The key findings from the report included: Five-year retention rates for elementary school trainees in state-funded education vary from 58% to 68%, with School...

02 12 2020