卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Secondary School Education

Do schools serving “Breakfast After-the-Bell” have lower student absenteeism?

With the rise in the availability of absenteeism data, it is clear that students in the United States were missing much school time even prior to Covid closures. In response, researchers and policymakers have been identifying school programs that might reduce student absenteeism. “Breakfast After-the-Bell” (BAB) is a school-based program where breakfast is served after school starts (rather than the traditional breakfast model, which occurs before school), either in the classroom itself or as a grab-and-go from a cafeteria where a student eats it in the first period classroom (or in-between first and second periods). In an article published by Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Kirksey and Gottfried examined whether implementing this breakfast program might reduce school absenteeism. Exploring longitudinal statewide datasets (Colorado and Nevada) containing school breakfast information linked to national data on chronic absenteeism rates, they employed sharp and fuzzy regression discontinuity designs to examine the effects of BAB. The findings...

18 06 2021
Effectiveness of secondary reading programs

Secondary reading performance has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In a study published in Reading Research Quarterly, Baye and colleagues conducted a quantitative synthesis on the effectiveness of reading programs for secondary students. Sixty-nine studies that met high evidence standards were identified, including 62 randomized and 7 quasi-experimental designs. All studies included took place in the US and the UK. Fifty-one programs were evaluated across all studies. The examined programs were divided into 10 categories. Among them, 7 categories showed positive overall weighted outcomes, including tutoring interventions (ES=+0.24), cooperative learning (ES=+0.10), whole-school approaches (ES=+0.06), writing-focused approaches (ES=+0.13), content-focused approaches (ES=+0.08), strategy-focused instruction (ES=+0.09), and group/personalization rotation (ES=+0.09), whereas vocabulary-focused approaches, personalization approaches, and intensive group approaches demonstrated no statistically significant positive outcomes. Two cross-cutting factors, additional reading periods and technology applications, were also explored using random-effects models. The findings were as follows: No significant differences were found between studies providing extra reading...

18 06 2021
How effective is the Success for All program?

It is rare that one program deserves its own systematic review or has the breadth and depth of research to warrant it, but Success for All (SFA) is not a typical program. With over 30 years of operations and services provided in around 1,000 schools, SfA has earned the attention of researchers evaluating the program’s impact. A recent study by Cheung and colleagues gathered 17 studies from the United States (narrowed down from over 60 based on the studies’ inclusion criteria) to examine the overall and differential effects of SfA on student reading achievement, as well as the study features that moderate the effects of SfA on reading achievement. The Success for All program is a whole-school approach focused on early grades with continued support intended to last into later elementary grades. The program includes a phonemic awareness and phonics-centered curriculum and provides professional development for teachers led by SfA coaches, literacy...

03 06 2021
Do teachers benefit from delivering an SEL intervention?

A Canadian study explored the impact on teachers of delivering a mindfulness-based social-emotional learning (SEL) program called MindUp with additional teacher training on trauma-informed practice. The study included 41 teachers in the control group and 71 teachers in the intervention group, composed of 45 teachers who delivered the intervention for one year, and 26 teachers who delivered the intervention for two years. Both groups included K-12 teachers and early childhood educators. Intervention teachers received a half-day in-person training on trauma-informed practice, and a full-day in-person MindUP training, in addition to another full-day extension training in the spring. The training for MindUp was offered by a trainer from the organization managing the program. After receiving the trainings, intervention teachers implemented MindUP in their classrooms throughout the school year. The intervention involved 15 weekly lessons and the implementation of core practice of the program three times a day. Comparison teachers received the same...

18 05 2021
The relationship between school discipline and student self-control

A recent meta-analysis by Li and colleagues analyzed results from 68 studies to explore the relationship between school discipline and self-control in students ranging in age from preschool through high school.  The researchers broke the topic of school discipline into three subcategories to better understand the association of each aspect with student self-control.  The first of these components was structure, which emphasizes the clear and fair enforcement of school rules to manage student behavior.  The second component was support, which emphasizes the creation of a nurturing environment that is responsive to student needs and is designed to help students develop good behavior.  The third component was the teacher-student relationship, which emphasizes quality interactions between students and staff as a means of managing student behavior. The meta-analysis found that: There is evidence of a significant, positive association between school discipline and student self-control (r = 0.190, p < 0.001).  When comparing the...

18 05 2021
How did absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic affect student outcomes?

In March 2020, most schools in the United States transitioned to distance learning in an effort to contain COVID-19. During the transition, a significant number of students did not fully engage in remote learning opportunities due to resource or other constraints. An urgent question for schools around the nation is how much the pandemic impacted student outcomes. In a recent article published by Educational Researcher, the authors used administrative panel data from six large CORE Districts in California to approximate the impact of the pandemic by analyzing how absenteeism affected student outcomes. The results showed that: There were wide variation in absenteeism impacts on academic and social-emotional outcomes by grade and subgroup, as well as the cumulative effect of different degrees of absence.Student outcomes generally suffer more from absenteeism in mathematics than in English language arts.Negative effects are larger in middle school. Absences also negatively affect social-emotional development, particularly in middle school, which...

04 05 2021
The optimal amount of learning time

International student assessment programs found that Chinese students had the top-tier performance and the longest learning time beyond school education. A recent article published in the International Journal of Educational Development examined the relationship between learning time and performance among secondary school students in China. The study used data from the China Education Panel Study for analysis. The study was a large-scale nationally representative survey conducted in the 2013-2014 school year as the baselines. 19,487 students in the 7th and 9th grades from 112 schools. Students’ academic achievement was standardized based on their school’s midterm exam scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The after-class learning time was measured in terms of the average time per weekday and weekend spent on doing homework assigned by school teachers, doing homework assigned by cram school and parents, and taking cram school courses.  The results showed that: The relationships between after-class learning time and...

21 04 2021
School inputs influencing student attendance: An experimental estimate

There is growing consensus that student attendance is an important intermediate outcome influenced by teachers and other school inputs. However, the malleable school inputs that affect student attendance rates are poorly understood.  In an article newly published by Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Long Tran and Seth Gershenson investigated the effect of class-level inputs, including class size and observable teacher characteristics, on student attendance rates. They leveraged the random classroom assignments made by Tennessee’s Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio) class size experiment, and its publicly available data. The results showed that: A ten-student increase in class size raised the probability of being chronically absent by about three percentage points (21%). For Black students, random assignment to a Black teacher reduced the probability of chronic absence by three percentage points (26%). Finally, about 5% of the impact of both class-size and student-teacher race match on test scores could be explained by improved attendance.  ...

21 04 2021
Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021