卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Secondary School Education

Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
How do achievement goal profiles related to students’ academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety?

Students can have multiple achievement goals, which influence their development in several aspects. In an article recently published on Learning and Individual Differences, Hongrui Liu examined what achievement goal profiles were held by Chinese students and how these profiles were associated with learning-related outcomes. 1,518 students from 70 classes in five schools in Beijing completed a questionnaire that measured their achievement goals, academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The achievement goals being measured included mastery goals, performance approach goals, and performance avoidance goals. The authors later classified these goals into five achievement goals profile, labeling them as "high all," "low all," "moderate all," “mastery-oriented,” and “approach-oriented” for comparison. The results showed that: The mastery-orientated profile was more adaptive than the low and moderate all profiles as it exhibited lower academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The mastery-orientated profile was similar to the high all profile in terms of...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021
PHAST, a program for adolescent struggling readers

The PHAST Reading Program is designed to support struggling readers in middle school. The program combines instruction in phonological skills and strategies to build word identification accuracy. It also incorporates motivational practices due to the low motivation associated with struggling readers. A recent study by Canadian and American researchers evaluated the effects of PHAST Reading on two groups: one addressing comprehension and one addressing fluency. The study was conducted in the US and Canada, and randomly assigned 514 struggling readers in grades 6, 7 and 8 to the PHAST Reading Comprehension (n = 217), PHAST Reading Fluency (n = 216) or the control group (n = 81). The interventions were delivered in pull-out sessions in student groups of 4 to 8. After almost one year of intervention, results comparing PHAST Reading (the two groups together) to the control group showed that: There were larger effects for foundational reading skills than for reading...

10 03 2021
Unexpected SEL benefits from Breakfast in the Classroom program

Social and motivational outcomes, Programme evaluation Breakfast In The Classroom (BIC) is a program in which all children receive breakfast in their homerooms while teachers take attendance, check homework, and prepare for the day. In a post by Child Trends’ Brandon Stratford and Michael Bradley, the authors described a study they did regarding the successes and challenges of implementing the Breakfast In The Classroom program, where they found an important and unexpected finding: BIC provided opportunities for students to develop their social-emotional learning skills. In the spring of 2018, Child Trends administered a survey that was completed by 368 individuals working in school districts in Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Texas. The survey covered topics ranging from respondents’ attitudes before starting BIC to the barriers and successes they experienced. Child Trends also conducted site visits in the spring and fall of 2018 in three school districts, visiting six schools altogether, and carrying out in-depth...

24 02 2021
Do academic performance related to mobile phone use?

Mobile phone use has become more common even among students. Would using mobile phone have any implication to students’ achievement? Recently, Liu and colleagues investigated the relationship between prolonged mobile phone use and academic performance among adolescents in China. The study was based on a sample from Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort conducted in 2015. The survey examined students’ weekday and weekend mobile phone use, sleep duration, insomnia, depression, and self-reported achievement. Among the sample of 11,831 students, the researchers were able to obtain the year end achievement tests score for Chinese, Mathematics, and English of 856 students following the baseline survey for the analysis. The results were as follows: Students achievement significantly decreased should their prolonged mobile phone use was more than 1 hour on weekday and 2 hours or more on weekend. After controlling for their backgrounds, students who used mobile phone more than two hours during...

10 02 2021
What contributes to effective school transformation initiatives?

Schools in the United States are continuously pressured to perform or improve performance, leading to a variety of methodologies intended to increase student achievement. But not all methodologies are equally effective. A recent study by Henry & Harbatkin examines the effectiveness of one such effort, the ESSA-aligned North Carolina Transformation (NCT) initiative, started in 2015. The initiative provided school transformation support services and instructional coaching to 75 schools in the bottom 5 percent of state proficiency testing over the course of two academic years. The majority of these schools were in rural locations (72), while six were located in cities or towns, and were a mixture of elementary (38), middle (28), and high schools (12). These schools, compared to non-treatment schools, were noted to have higher minority and low-income student populations, higher percentages of new teachers, and higher per student expenditures. Comparing student performance, through end-of-year and end-of-course assessments, Henry & Harbatkin...

10 02 2021
What strategies help teachers get along with students?

Amicable student-teacher relationships (STRs) contribute to students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development. In order to facilitate positive STRs, it is important to understand effective practices from past rigorous studies. A recent meta-analysis, published in Review of Educational Research, aims to identify the most effective and the most common practice elements for school- and class-wide STR programs. This meta-analysis reviews randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs within the PreK-12 realm. After applying inclusion criteria, researchers from the University of Minnesota identified 21 studies and 13 unique STR programs. STR was measured by a teacher-reported 28-item scale that assessed their interpersonal relationships with students. On average, the combined weighted effect size shows that the included programs had a modest effect size on overall STR (ES=+0.26). The authors also highlighted two universal programs that demonstrate the largest effect sizes: Establish-Maintain-Restore(ES=+0.64) and BRIDGE (ES=+0.65). Apart from program-based analysis, the authors also explored the effectiveness of different practice types. Understandably, preventative...

27 01 2021
Is course acceleration a good-for-all policy?

Is exposing students to course acceleration the best way to help their skills acquisition? Recently RAND Corporation’s Andrew McEachin and his colleagues investigated the impact of enrolling in advanced math courses on students’ achievement and heterogeneity across schools. Hundreds of California middle schools use 7th-grade test scores to place students into 8th-grade algebra, but placement thresholds vary across schools. This study used such a scenario to estimate causal effects via a regression discontinuity (RD) design using 7th-grade algebra scores from the California Standards Test (CST) across 510 schools. Results suggest that: Enrolling in 8th-grade algebra increased students’ math scores by 0.05 SD and ELA by 0.34 SD on the 10th grade California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) tests. Further, the likelihood of students’ enrollment in advanced math in 9th and 11th grade rose by 30% and 16% when compared to their non-accelerated peers, with underserved students gaining the most from placement into early...

27 01 2021