卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Kindergarten

Preschool teachers’ personality and their beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices

A recent study published in the Frontiers in Psychology examined how teachers’ beliefs and practices were related to their personality in preschool settings. Among a sample of 544 preschool teachers in Hong Kong, which included pre-service and in-service teachers, Wong (2019) used questionnaires to examine how teachers’ beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices were related to their personality. The questionnaire included the Myer–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which is a personality inventory that measures four dimensions of personality, namely “Extroversion-Introversion,” “Sensing-Intuition,” “Thinking-Feeling” and “Judging-Perceiving.” Moreover, the Teacher Beliefs and Practices Survey was used to measure teachers’ beliefs and their instructional activities about developmentally appropriate practices. The findings were as follows: The predominant personality type profiles of preschool teachers were ” Sensing-Feeling-Judging”. The in-service teachers in the sample were characterized by the dominance of sensing (86.7%), feeling (64.0%), and judging (83.4%). Extroverted and intuitive teachers tended to hold stronger beliefs in developmentally appropriate...

25 02 2020
The effect of linguistic comprehension training on language and reading comprehension

Kristin Rogde and colleagues from the Campbell Collaboration have completed a systematic review that examines the effects of linguistic comprehension instruction on generalized measures of language and reading comprehension skills. Examples of linguistic comprehension skills include vocabulary, grammar, and narrative skills. The authors searched literature dating back to 1986, and identified 43 studies to include in the review, including samples of both pre-school and school-aged participants. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experiments with a control group and a pre-post design were included. Key findings of the review were as follows: The linguistic comprehension programs included in the review display a small positive immediate effect on generalized outcomes of linguistic comprehension. The effect of the programs on generalized measures of reading comprehension is negligible. Few studies report follow-up assessment of their participants. According to the authors, linguistic comprehension instruction has the potential to increase children’s general linguistic comprehension skills. However, there is variability in...

25 02 2020
How to make a systematic review’s meta-analysis high quality

Terri Piggott at Loyola University Chicago and Joshua Polanin at AIR have published a Methodological Guidance Paper: High-Quality Meta-Analysis in a Systematic Review , now appearing on RER’s Online First website. A meta-analysis synthesizes the quantitative findings of many studies on a given topic. The guidance paper outlines the characteristics that make a meta-analysis in a systematic review high quality, discussing unbiased screening and coding procedures, establishing a protocol for carrying out a review, and then discussing in depth the best practices for computing effect sizes and reporting the data. The authors conclude that “the role of researchers using systematic review and meta-analysis is to produce both high-quality analyses and to interpret those results in ways accessible to a wide audience. A high-quality systematic review and meta-analysis is difficult and time-consuming to produce; it is worth the effort to ensure that the results inform future research and policymaking through clear discussion of...

25 02 2020
Examining teachers’ response to chaos in the classroom

An article co-authored by Johns Hopkins School of Education’s Lieny Jeon reports that teachers need emotional support to manage chaotic classrooms. The finding comes from a study Jeon and her colleagues conducted that examined the role of teachers’ emotional abilities and classroom environments in how teachers respond to children’s negative emotions and disruptive behavior. The researchers sampled 1,129 teachers working with preschoolers in child-care centers or public pre-K programs across the U.S. Using a survey, the teachers were asked to rate their perceptions of environmental chaos and their responsiveness to children in early childcare settings. The researchers found that Childcare chaos (e.g., crowdedness, unpredictability, and lack of routines and rules) was directly associated with teachers’ non-supportive reactions (e.g., distress reactions and punitive reactions) after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic childcare settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn was associated with...

12 02 2020
Classroom management interventions made a difference

A meta-analysis of classroom management interventions has found that they improved academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes. Published in the Review of Educational Research, the study included 54 classroom management interventions in 47 studies published between 2003 and 2013. It included some interventions that had been evaluated several times (including Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), the Good Behavior Game, and Zippy’s Friends). About three-quarters of the studies were carried out in the U.S., with the remainder in Europe and Canada. Most interventions were focused on changing students’ behavior (85%), improving students’ social-emotional development (74%), or changing teachers’ behavior (54%). Only two interventions were specifically targeted to improving teacher–student relationships. The analysis found that: There was an overall effect size of +0.22 for the interventions, with a slightly higher effect on behavior (+0.24), and less on social-emotional (+0.21) and academic (+0.17) outcomes. There was no significant effect on motivational outcomes. The analysis also indicated that...

12 02 2020
Suspending suspensions

In irony worthy of Shakespeare, out-of-school suspensions have typically been used as punishment for students who are truant (absent from school without parental consent) or chronically absent (missing 10% or more of school days). Given that the goal is to keep students in school and academically engaged, a few states have banned this practice. A recent JESPAR article examined the effects of this ban on absence rates in Arkansas, which established a law in 2013 banning out-of-school suspensions. The state offered no training to schools, and each was left to make its own way with the policy change. Although out-of-school suspensions were banned, other punishments were allowed to continue, including in-school suspension, which takes a student out of the regular classroom for a time but allows them to continue their work elsewhere. Using data from all K-12 Arkansas public schools, researchers compared the attendance of truant and non-truant students between 2012–13 (pre-policy) and 2013–14 (post-policy) to...

29 01 2020
Play-based curriculum benefits young children and teachers

Findings from a randomized controlled trial of Tools of the Mind (Tools) suggest that the program improves kindergarten students’ academic outcomes in reading and writing, enhances children’s joy in learning and teachers’ enjoyment of teaching, and reduces teacher burnout. The Tools program is a play-based preschool and kindergarten curriculum that emphasizes self-control, language, and literacy skills. The study, published in the journal PLoS One, analyzed the effectiveness of Tools on kindergarten teachers and 351 children (mean age 5.2 years at entry) with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in 18 public schools in Canada. Schools were paired with closely matched schools and then randomized to either the intervention group or control group. Teachers in the intervention group received a three-day workshop on Tools before the school year began, along with funds for resources. Control group teachers were offered the same amount of training hours and funds for whatever training and resource materials they wanted. The results showed...

30 12 2019
Mother’s reading level makes a difference

An article published in the Early Childhood Education Journal shows that maternal reading level predicts both a child’s receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency prior to schooling, after maternal education is taken into account. The findings also controlled for ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status. The authors used a sample of 155 children (aged 3-5 years) and their mothers (aged 20-44 years) of low-income and low-educational backgrounds from Western Canada. Children and mothers were tested individually for their reading proficiency using standardized tests, and children’s receptive vocabulary proficiency was also tested. The mothers were also interviewed one-to-one for demographic information. All the families spoke English first and foremost, although some were bilingual. The findings were: Both mothers’ measured reading levels and their reported educational levels were significant predictors of children’s reading proficiency, each over and above the other. However, in the case of children’s receptive vocabulary proficiency, they...

30 12 2019
Texting parents helped with early literacy

A study of a program that sent literacy-related advice via text messages to parents of preschool children showed that it improved both the parents’ literacy behavior and the children’s early literacy. READY4K! is an eight-month-long text messaging program for parents of preschool children. Parents receive texts that cover literacy skills, encourage them to participate, and provide follow-up tips. In the study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, 519 parents in California were randomly assigned to receive the program or a series of “placebo” texts (e.g., about school enrollment) during the 2013-14 school year. The results indicated: The texts increased the frequency with which parents read books to children and other literacy activities (effects up to 0.35 standard deviations higher). According to teachers, texted parents asked more questions about their child’s learning (up to 0.19 standard deviations higher) than placebo parents, and their children performed better on early measures of literacy...

30 12 2019