卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Kindergarten

Parents as Teachers in Switzerland

A randomized controlled trial published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly examines the effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program in Zurich, Switzerland. PAT is a parent teaching program that begins during pregnancy, or shortly after birth, and continues until the child’s third birthday. Among its goals, PAT aims to increase parental knowledge of early childhood development and improve parental practice and, in the long term, increase the child’s school readiness and success. A total of 261 children from 248 families took part in the trial. Families in the intervention group (n=132) were supported with regular home visits from qualified parent educators with a degree in early education, and attended group meetings. The 116 families in the control group had access to the normal community services but were not supported by PAT. The results showed that: After three years of the PAT program, children showed more age-appropriate adaptive behavior, with small effect sizes in...

19 05 2020
The effects of high-quality PD on teachers and students

A report from the Education Policy Institute (EPI) in the U.K. reviews the evidence on the impact of professional development (PD) for teachers, and finds that high-quality PD can play a role in improving teaching quality. Commissioned by Wellcome, the rapid review and meta-analysis examined 52 randomized controlled trials evaluating PD programs for teachers in order to establish their impact on student and teacher outcomes. These were trials of interventions that went beyond current practice in school, and might include training courses, mentoring, seminars, and peer review. The findings of the report suggest that High-quality PD has a positive effect on students’ learning outcomes (ES = +0.09). The review also suggests that the availability of high-quality PD may have a positive impact on teacher retention, particularly for early-career teachers.   Source: Fletcher-Wood, H., & Zuccollo, J. (2020). The effects of high-quality professional development on teachers and students – A rapid review and meta-analysis....

19 05 2020
Burnout among Chinese kindergarten teachers

Teaching stress has become a well-confirmed problem among teachers over recent decades. Recently, a study conducted in Tianjin, China, also investigated the prevalence and correlates of burnout among Chinese kindergarten teachers. The study randomly selected and invited 1795 kindergarten teachers to participate in a survey study conducted from July to October 2018. The teachers invited were from 16 districts in Tianjin, where more than 1200 kindergartens were based. The response rate was 97%. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey scale was used to access the burnout level in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished professional accomplishment. The study found that: The prevalence of burnout in Chinese kindergarten teachers was 53.2%. Respectively, 38.6%, 23.8%, and 21.8% of teachers reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a low level of professional accomplishment. Teachers who were dissatisfied with their income were more likely to experience burnout than their counterparts. Kindergarten teachers who...

05 05 2020
Do teacher pay incentives improve student test scores?

A meta-analysis published in the American Educational Research Journal looks at the association between teacher pay incentives and students’ test scores, and suggests that teacher pay incentives have the potential to improve student test scores in some contexts. Lam D. Pham and colleagues analyzed effect sizes across 37 studies, 26 of which were conducted in the U.S. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to include a sample comprising K-12 teachers and students located in a district or state that had a teacher pay incentive program. Studies also had to use a randomized controlled trial with a business-as-usual comparison group, and report on student outcomes on standardized tests. The results were: Overall, among the U.S.-based studies, the effect of teacher pay incentives on student test scores was positive (ES= +0.043). However, this varied across subjects and settings. The average effect size of pay incentives on students’ math test scores (ES= +0.050) was...

05 05 2020
Online Learning: Is it Effective?

There has been unprecedentedly large-scale amount of online learning or distant learning conducted every day during the COVID-19 outbreak, making people curious about the effectiveness of it. However, in 2010, the U.S. Department of Education had already conducted a meta-analysis of online learning studies. The report examined the effectiveness of online learning compared with face-to-face instruction and explored the practices and conditions that were associated with more effective online learning. The meta-analysis screened 50 effect sizes that fulfilled its inclusion criteria, providing a contrast between online learning and face-to-face learning or blended learning and face-to-face learning. However, given there were only a few rigorous studies of K-12 students at that time, 43 out of  the 50 effect sizes were drawn from research with older learners. In all, the results suggested that: Students in online conditions performed modestly better than students who learned the same material through traditional face-to-face instruction. However,...

24 04 2020
How could parents effectively support children’s home learning ?

A recent meta-analysis published in Psychological Bulletin identified the importance of parental involvement in children’s adjustment. Parents should note that while their involvements were beneficial to students in many ways, their assisting in homework might have negative impacts on student’s achievements. This metanalysis was based on 448 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria, which included data from more than 480,000 families. The study analyzed the effects of parent’s school and home involvement’s on children’s adjustments. The findings showed that: In all, parents’ involvement was positively related to children’s outcomes. Parents’ involvement was beneficial not only to students’ achievement but also to students’ engagement, motivation, and social and emotional adjustments. Parents’ school involvement, which included participation in schools and governance, was beneficial. Except for homework involvement ,parents’ home involvement was beneficial to children’s adjustments in all aspects. These beneficial home involvement included discussion, encouragement, and provision of cognitively stimulating activities...

24 04 2020
Enhancing the Home Learning Environment for Young Children

Home is an important site where young children grow – a truism especially relevant now until classes resume. The importance of a high-quality early home-learning environment for a child’s educational and life outcomes has been highlighted by a report published for the Department for Education of the UK before. It suggested that the physical home itself and interaction in the home both matter, and parents should understand they have the power to improve them. Specifically, it is crucial for parents to support their children to achieve their milestones of early language and communication development. Following are some extracts of suggested actions for parents of children from age 2 to 5 identified by the National Literacy Trust and Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists: 2-3 years Tap out the beat to songs and rhymes. When playing with your child, give a running commentary on what they are doing, using action...

24 04 2020
Does quality of instruction improve outcomes in early childhood education?

The Education Endowment Foundation in the U.K. has published an evaluation of a program that trains preschool teachers to improve children’s language outcomes. The Using Research Tools to Improve Language in the Early Years (URLEY) intervention is an evidence-based professional development program for preschool teachers. It is designed to improve teacher’s knowledge of how children learn and develop oral language skills, and how to support that learning through evidence-based practice. Teachers take part in five day-long professional development workshops in which they are introduced to evidence-based learning principles and research tools to evaluate and refine pedagogy and practice. In particular, teachers are taught to use Environment Rating Scales (ERS) —research-validated observational rating scales known to predict aspects of children’s development, with higher scores linked to improved math and English achievement. Teachers watched videos of effective practice and were supported to use the language principles and ERS to “tune in” to language-supporting practice....

07 04 2020
Review of professional learning and development in early childhood education

Approaches to professional development that combine coaching or mentoring with new knowledge and opportunities for reflection on practice may be the most effective in improving outcomes in early childhood settings, according to a study published in Review of Education. Sue Rogers and colleagues conducted the systematic review, which was funded by the Nuffield Foundation, in order to examine the impact of professional learning and development. The studies included in the review identify approaches to professional learning that demonstrate impact on early childhood education on one or more outcomes across three main areas: literacy knowledge and skills, math and science knowledge, and social-emotional and behavioral development.  The findings from the review suggested that: Coaching models, and approaches that help develop pedagogical knowledge, may be the most effective in improving outcomes in early childhood settings. The evidence on duration, frequency, and intensity of the professional learning, although likely to be important factors, was inconclusive.  ...

07 04 2020