卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Types of Evidence

What works in mathematics for elementary school students?

A new review of research, conducted by the team at JHU’s Center for Research and Reform in Education and recently published in AERA Open, analyzes the best available international evidence on math programs for children in elementary school to find out what works in math teaching and learning. Eighty-seven studies of 66 programs were included in the review. Of these, 85% were randomized experiments and 15% were quasi-experiments. Results showed that: There were positive outcomes for tutoring programs (ES = +0.20), with larger effects for one-to-small group tutoring (ES = +0.30) compared to one-to-one tutoring (ES = +0.19). Similar outcomes were found for teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Professional development (PD) programs were effective when they focused on classroom organization and management (ES = +0.19), such as implementation of cooperative learning, or when they were intended to support the adoption of traditional (non-digital) curricula (ES = +0.12). No impact was found...

07 04 2021
Teaching strategies to improve science learning

A new systematic review in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching analyzes the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. It concludes that science teaching methods focused on enhancing teachers’ classroom instruction throughout the year, such as cooperative learning and science-reading integration, as well as approaches that give teachers technology tools to enhance instruction, have significant potential to improve science learning. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, study duration of at least four weeks, and the use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A total of 23 studies met these criteria. The findings were as follows:   Among studies evaluating inquiry-based teaching approaches, programs that used science kits did not show positive outcomes on science achievement measures (weighted ES=+0.02 in 7 studies), but inquiry-based programs that emphasized professional development but not kits did show positive outcomes (weighted ES=+0.36...

07 04 2021
Effect of professional development on science achievement

A recent study published in the International Journal of Science Education and funded by the Education Endowment Foundation (England) examined the impact of the Thinking, Doing, Talking Science (TDTS) program on students’ learning outcomes. TDTS is a teacher professional development (PD) program with similarities to inquiry-based science education.  The program aims to enhance teachers’ skills to facilitate students’ higher order thinking through teacher demonstration, student practical tasks and challenges, and class discussion. The study involved 1264 pupils aged 9-10 at 42 primary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the TDTS group or the control group. Teachers in the TDTS group received five training days over a school year and implemented the program in their classes. The researchers used a measure developed by them to evaluate student science achievement with particular attention to science inquiry process, content knowledge, and conceptual understanding. The measure was based on questions extracted from standardized tests. Results showed that: ·        ...

07 04 2021
Is Teacher Leadership Related to Student Achievement?

A recent meta-analysis in Educational Research Review identified 21 studies to be used in an analysis of the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  In defining teacher leadership for this analysis, the authors indicate that teachers who demonstrate leadership maintain their normal classroom responsibilities while also assuming leadership responsibilities beyond the classroom.  Among the studies analyzed, five demonstrated what the researchers classify as a desired effect (r > .20) and eight demonstrated what the researchers classify as a meaningful teacher effect (.10 < r < .20).  The researchers used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, which indicates an overall meaningful teacher effect (r = 0.187, 95% CI = [0.127, 0.246]) when analyzing the relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement.  This provides evidence that teacher leadership is positively related to student performance (p < 0.001). The authors then further investigate this relationship by looking at differences between courses and specific elements...

24 03 2021
How do achievement goal profiles related to students’ academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety?

Students can have multiple achievement goals, which influence their development in several aspects. In an article recently published on Learning and Individual Differences, Hongrui Liu examined what achievement goal profiles were held by Chinese students and how these profiles were associated with learning-related outcomes. 1,518 students from 70 classes in five schools in Beijing completed a questionnaire that measured their achievement goals, academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The achievement goals being measured included mastery goals, performance approach goals, and performance avoidance goals. The authors later classified these goals into five achievement goals profile, labeling them as "high all," "low all," "moderate all," “mastery-oriented,” and “approach-oriented” for comparison. The results showed that: The mastery-orientated profile was more adaptive than the low and moderate all profiles as it exhibited lower academic burnout, learning engagement, and test anxiety. The mastery-orientated profile was similar to the high all profile in terms of...

24 03 2021
The cost of preK

Can anyone put a price on a child's education? As a result of a glaring deficiency of research on the costs of early childhood policies and programs, Kabay and colleagues sought to rectify this gap by examining the costs of preK in Boston. Their goals in this study were to: Estimate how much Boston's highly effective public preschool program costs overall. Break down costs that are used only by the preschool and those that are system-wide. Quantify how costs change over time, in particular comparing startup and maintenance costs. Generalize costs in Boston to be nationally-representative. Their findings indicated that the total per-child costs for one year of prekindergarten in Boston ranged from $15,240 during a time of maintenance to $18,210 during a time of expansion. Systems costs comprised approximately 40% of the total costs of prekindergarten, consequently only 60% of the total cost of prekindergarten was in additive costs. This...

24 03 2021
An evaluation of Descubriendo la Lectura tutoring

Geoffrey Borman and his team administered a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL), the Spanish version of Reading Recovery. DLL is a literacy intervention for Spanish-speaking students. 187 low-performing first-graders were recruited from two school districts in the United States to participate in the study. Students in both control and intervention groups received classroom-level transitional bilingual programs, and students in the intervention group received 12 to 20 weeks of additional one-to-one Spanish-language literacy tutoring from trained DLL teachers. To become a trained DLL teacher, teachers needed to receive a 2-year training program, and ongoing professional development and support. Students' literacy skills were assessed before and after the intervention on Logramos, the Spanish-language version of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Students who received DLL demonstrated significantly greater performance on vocabulary, comprehension, and word analysis after the intervention. The study also used another assessment tool called IdO,...

24 03 2021
Satisfying students’ psychological needs at schools contribute to academic achievements

Positive psychology theories indicated that satisfying students' basic psychological needs, including satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs, can promote academic achievements. Recently in an article published in Learning and Instruction, Jianhua Zhou and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study among Chinese adolescents to understand the relationships between basic needs satisfaction at schools, positivity of the students, and academic achievements. 712 seventh graders from two public schools in the Southern China participated in the study. Students completed a survey assessing their basic needs satisfaction at schools and positivity for three consecutive semesters. Students' final exam scores of each semester in Chinese Language, English Language, and Mathematics were also obtained. The analysis showed that: Academic achievement and basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly predicted each other. Positivity significantly predicted academic achievement, but achievement did not contribute to positivity. Basic psychological needs satisfaction also indirectly predicted academic achievement through positivity. The authors suggested that...

10 03 2021
Using modified truancy notifications to parents to improve their child’s attendance

Attendance strongly predicts academic success. Many states in the United States require that districts or schools notify parents when students have missed multiple unexcused days of school. In a working paper released by the Annenberg Institute at Brown University, Jessica Lasky-Fink and her colleagues reported the impact of sending parents truancy notifications modified to target behavioral barriers that can hinder effective parental engagement. Compared to standard, legalistic, and punitively-worded notifications, modified truancy notifications used simplified language, emphasized parental role and efficacy, and highlighted the negative incremental effects of missing school. This evaluation was a randomized experiment (N=131,312), and showed that modified truancy notifications reduced absences by 7 days, an estimated 40% improvement over the standard truancy notification.   Source: Lasky-Fink, Jessica, Carly D. Robinson, Hedy Chang, and Todd Rogers. (2020). Using behavioral insights to improve school administrative communications: The case of truancy notifications. (Edworkingpaper: 20-271). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University: https://doi.org/10.26300/62tp-nx06… Read...

10 03 2021