This paper, written by Robert Slavin and colleagues from Johns Hopkins University, the University of Liege, and the Institute for Effective Education, reviews research on the outcomes of writing program for students in grades 2 to 12. Studies had to meet rigorous standards of research including use of randomized or well-matched control groups; measures independent of the program developers, researchers, and teachers; and adequate sample size and duration. Fourteen studies of 12 programs met the criteria and programs were divided into three categories: writing process models, cooperative learning writing programs, and programs integrating reading and writing. The findings were:
- Student achievement effects on writing were positive in all categories, with an effect size of +0.18 across all 14 studies.
- Similar outcomes were found for writing programs that focused on the writing process (ES =+0.17), those using cooperative learning (ES=+0.16), and those focusing on interactions between reading and writing (ES =+0.19)
In conclusion, the authors suggested that successful approaches should always be intentionally structured to build students’ skills, confidence, and motivation.
Source (Open Access): Slavin, E.R., Lake, C., Inns, A., Baye, A., Dachet, D., Haslam, J. (2019). A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Years 3 to 13. London, England: Education Endowment Foundation.