卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Does personality matter for effective teaching and burnout?

Lisa Kim and colleagues recently conducted a meta-analysis to try to identify whether personality characteristics are associated with effective teaching.

The study, which was published in Educational Psychology Review, looked at 25 studies (total number of participants = 6,294) that reported on relationships between five teacher personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and two teacher job-related outcomes (teacher effectiveness and burnout).

Overall, the results showed that

  • Teacher personality may be associated with teacher effectiveness and job burnout.
  • For teacher effectiveness, extraversion was found to have the largest effect size (ES= +0.17), and agreeableness the lowest (ES= +0.03).
  • The characteristic most associated with less teacher burnout was emotional stability ( ES=+0.21), and openness had the smallest effect size (ES= +0.04).However, as the effect sizes for burnout were very small, the authors suggest that the results should be approached with caution.

The researchers also looked at whether the source of the teacher personality report (i.e., self-report vs. other-report) and educational level had any moderating effects on the relationship between personality and job-related outcomes. The findings indicated that other-reports of teacher personality were more strongly associated with effectiveness and burnout than self-reports. There were no differences in the strength of the associations between the educational levels.


Source (Open Access): Kim, L. E., Jörg, V., & Klassen, R. M. (2019). A meta-analysis of the effects of teacher personality on teacher effectiveness and burnout. Educational Psychology Review. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1007/s10648-018-9458-2Read the rest

Impact of shared book reading on children’s language development

meta-analysis conducted by Claire Noble and colleagues explores the impact of shared reading interventions (where an adult reads with a child) on children’s language skills, and whether they are equally effective across a range of different outcome variables, for children from different socioeconomic backgrounds, and across a range of study designs.

The analysis included 54 studies conducted between 1989 and 2017. These studies included 316 effect sizes and 5,569 participants. Nine of the studies reported follow-up effects. Children in the studies were typically age 7 years or younger.

Their findings suggest that,

  • While there is an effect of shared reading on language development, the effect size is smaller than suggested in previous meta-analyses (ES = +0.23).
  • Also, the effect size is moderated by the type of control groups, and when compared to active control groups, is closer to zero (ES = +0.04).
  • In addition, the meta-analysis indicates only modest differences between types of language outcome, no effect for socioeconomic background, and a near-zero effect at follow-up.

However, given the low dosage of many of the studies included in the meta-analysis, the authors caution against the conclusion that shared reading interventions have no real effect on children’s language development.


Source (Open Access): Noble, C., Sala, G., Lowe, M., Lingwood, J., Rowland, C. F., Gobet, F., & Pine, J. (2018, October 14). The impact of shared book reading on children’s language skills: A meta-analysis. https://psyarxiv.com/cu7bk/Read the rest

Computer-supported collaborative learning

Juanjuan Chen and colleagues recently performed a meta-analysis on the effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL).

Using 425 empirical studies (all of which used a controlled experimental or quasi-experimental design) published between 2000 and 2016, researchers found several main aspects to examine: the effects of the collaboration itself; the effects of computer use during collaboration; the effects of extra technology-related learning tools used in CSCL, such as videoconferencing and sharing visuals with team partners; and strategies such as role assignment and peer feedback.

Collaborative learning itself positively affected:

  • Knowledge gain (ES= +0.42)
  • Skill acquisition (ES= +0.62)
  • Student perceptions of the experience (ES= +0.38)

The use of computers, when combined with collaborative learning, positively affected:

  • Knowledge gain (ES= +0.45)
  • Skill acquisition (ES= +0.53)
  • Student perceptions (ES= +0.51)
  • Group task performance (ES= +0.89)
  • Social interaction (ES= +0.57) 

Lastly, extra technology-related learning tools during CSCL positively affected knowledge gain (ES= +0.55), as did the use of strategies (ES= +0.38).


Source : Chen, J., Wang, M., Kirschner, P. A., & Tsai, C.-C. (2018). The role of collaboration, computer use, learning environments, and supporting strategies in CSCL: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 88(6), 799–843. Read the rest

Are immigrant children more likely to pursue STEM careers?

Findings from a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggest that immigrant children study more math and science in high school and college, which means they are more likely to pursue STEM careers.

Marcus Rangel and Ying Shi looked at the trajectories of more than 286,000 children born outside of the U.S., and who moved to the U.S. before age 16, using nationally representative datasets including the 2010-2016 waves of the American Community Survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and the National Survey of College Graduates.

They found that :

  • Among U.S.-born children, about 20% of college students major in STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics).
  • However, among those born outside the US - particularly those who moved to the U.S. after age 10, and don't come from English-speaking or northern-European countries where the native language is linguistically close to English - this number is much higher, with around 36% majoring in STEM subjects.
  • Children arriving after age 10 earn approximately 20% more credits in math-intensive courses than they do in English-intensive courses. This focus then continues throughout college, which in turn leads to pursuing a career in a STEM field.

The authors suggest that older children who immigrate to the U.S. from a country where the native language is very dissimilar to English may choose subjects that rely less on language skills and build more on skills they are relatively more comfortable with, such as math or science.


Source (Open Access): Rangel, M. A., & Shi, Y. (2019). Early patterns of skill acquisition and immigrants’ specialization in STEM careers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(2), 484–489. Read the rest

The principles of success in math

Helping students to understand the logical principles underlying math may improve their mathematical achievement, according to the findings of a randomized controlled trial published by the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) in the UK.

Mathematical Reasoning lessons focus on developing students’ understanding of the logical principles underlying math, and cover principles such as place value and the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. One hundred and sixty English primary schools took part in the trial, and were randomly allocated to receive either Mathematical Reasoning or to be in the control group. The control group was given the opportunity to take part in the program the following year. Teachers in the intervention schools delivered the program to Year 2 students. over 12 to 15 weeks as part of their usual math lessons. Learning was supported by online games, which could be used by students at school and at home.

The independent evaluation by a team from the National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) found that:

  • There was a small but statistically significant effect on math achievement for students who took part in the program, compared to other students (ES = +0.08).
  • It had the same impact for students eligible for free school meals.
  • There were also some evidence indicating that the program had a positive impact on mathematical reasoning.

The authors suggested that the intervention was well received by schools in general, although the implementation in some schools that did not have access to the necessary IT equipment or teaching assistant support might not be intended.


Source (Open Access): Stokes, L., Hudson-Sharp, N., Dorsett, R., Rolfe, H., Anders, J., George, A., …& Munro-Lott, N. (2018). Mathematical Reasoning: Evaluation report and executive summary. London: Education Endowment Foundation.Read the rest