卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief
Putting evidence into practice: a framework for knowledge mobilization

Producing and making available evidence of effective educational programs is not enough to make it used in practice. Knowledge mobilization should be one of the key research areas to foster greater equity and responsiveness to educators’ needs. A study by Fitzgerald and Tipton focused on the communication of statistical data by studying how those data should be reported in order to facilitate decision-making based on evidence at school and policy levels.

The authors proposed three main considerations. First, using the expression “the message sent may not be the message received,” they highlight that researchers set norms often not understood by practitioners. To overcome this issue, participatory research methods should be used to set norms.

Second, practitioners and decision-makers are different from each other: they may work in large or small districts with diverse resources and educational backgrounds. The contexts where they work vary considerably based on the community they serve. To overcome this issue, a deep understanding of a community’s needs is necessary.

Finally, knowledge mobilization research needs other disciplines, such as data visualization, to create effective strategies to disseminate evidence.

 

Source: Fitzgerald, K. G., & Tipton, E. (2023). A knowledge mobilization framework: Toward evidence-based statistical communication practices in education research. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 0(0), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2023.2209082Read the rest

Longhand notetaking is worth using

With the usage of smartphones becoming increasingly pervasive, taking photos to record information in class allows students to store more information with less effort. Many studies have demonstrated that longhand note-taking facilitates the deeper encoding of information and reduces mind-wandering, but little research has investigated the learning outcomes of the photo-taking strategy, so a recent study was conducted to compare their effectiveness.

The sample of this study included 100 college students between the ages of 18-32 who were divided into three subgroups to listen to two lectures in three different conditions: listening with longhand note-taking, with photo-taking, and without note-taking. After they completed both lectures, participants reviewed their hand-written notes, photos they took, and plain printouts, respectively, to prepare for a recall test.

The results revealed that students who took longhand notes outperformed the other two groups. A repetitive experiment was also done to probe participants’ mind-wandering behavior by asking participants to report their mind-wandering behavior. The outcomes demonstrated that longhand note-takers mind-wandered less than the other groups. The authors concluded that significant benefits of longhand note-taking should be acknowledged, and educators have an obligation to impart knowledge on how best to learn — taking longhand notes.

 

Source: Wong, S. S. H., & Lim, S. W. H. (2023). Take notes, not photos: Mind-wandering mediates the impact of note-taking strategies on video-recorded lecture learning performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 29, 124–135. https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000375Read the rest

Does heavy media multitasking impede cognitive control abilities?

Media multitasking is an increasingly common behavior where individuals use multiple forms of media simultaneously (e.g., listening to music while chatting through social media). Heavy media multitaskers may perform poorly in some cognitive control abilities, including inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The “scatter attention hypothesis” suggests that heavy media multitaskers are more likely to be distracted by irrelevant information, leading to poorer performance on cognitive tasks. To investigate the association between media multitasking frequency with cognitive control, Kong and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis comparing cognitive control abilities between heavy (HMM) and light media multitaskers (LMM), while also examining potential moderators including age using two groups: adolescents (12-18 years old) and young adults (18-35 years old).

The sample included 118 effect sizes from 43 studies that compared at least one component of executive function between HMM and LMM using the media multitask index (MMI) or a modified version of MMI to measure the media multitask experience. MMI is a self-reported tool that requires participants to report time spent on various types of media and their concurrent usage frequency. The results of the three-level meta-analysis indicated that:

  • The HMM significantly underperformed compared to LMM on cognitive control tasks (ES = -0.23)
  • The type of cognitive function was a significant moderator with inhibitory control having the largest effect (ES = -0.31), followed by working memory (ES = -0.24) and flexibility (ES=-0.05).
  • The effect was significantly larger when cognitive controls were measured by a self-reported approach (ES = -047) rather than by laboratory tasks (ES = -0.16)
  • No significant difference was found between adolescents (ES=-0.39) and young adults or college students (ES=-0.20) in terms of the difference in cognitive function between HMM and LMM.

Engaging in media multitasking more frequently is likely to result in poorer performance in inhibitory control and working memory. Authors suggested that the findings supported the scattered attention hypothesis.

 

Source: Kong, F., Meng, S., Deng, H., Wang, M., & Sun, X. (2023). Cognitive control in adolescents and young adults with media multitasking experience: A three-level meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 35(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-023-09746-0Read the rest

A cross-cultural comparison the link between executive function and academic outcomes in early childhood

Executive function (EF) refers to a set of self-regulatory skills to consciously guide thoughts, actions, and emotions towards achieving goals. EF includes the cognitive aspect (“cool” EF) and the affective aspect (“hot” EF). Cool EF involves working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, while hot EF involves decision making based on emotions. In a recent study, Chen and Yeung compared how hot EF and cool EF link to academic skills across various ethnic groups of preschoolers in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Cool EF was represented by working memory (WM) and hot EF by delay of gratification (DoG) in the study.

Two wave data were collected from a Singapore Longitudinal Early Development Study in 2018/19 and two years later (2021). The study sample consisted of 2,527 children (70.7% Chinese, 19.9% Malays, 12.4% Indians) aged 36-83 months (M=58.9) during the first wave. Each child completed the WM and DoG tasks, and the child’s self-control was reported by primary caregiver (95.4% mothers) in first wave. Standardized math and reading tests scores were collected in the second wave. The findings are shown below.

  • Chinese children developed delay of gratification around age 4, approximately 2 years earlier than their Malay and Indian counterparts and outperformed them in working memory. However, no difference was found in self-control among the three ethnicities in any age group.
  • Chinese children outperformed age-matched Malay and Indian children in reading and math scores.
  • Across ethnic groups, DoG positively associated with WM, which further predicted higher achievement scores in reading and math two years later. WM was a mediator which explained the effect of DoG on test scores.
  • Self-control mediated the effect of DoG on later reading (β=.010) and math skills (β =0.009) was only found significant for Chinese children with very small effect sizes, as the Chinese sample was much larger than the other two groups.

The findings of this study provide further understanding of culture variability and consistency in development of hot and cool EF skills, and their association with later academic outcomes in an Asian context. Further research is needed to investigate which factors might explain the early development gap and academic outcomes across subcultures in Singapore.

 

Source: Chen, L., & Yeung, W.-J. J. (2023). Self-regulation and academic achievement among Singaporean young children: A cross-cultural comparison in a multicultural Asian society. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 01650254231170442. https://doi.org/10.1177/01650254231170442Read the rest

Impacts of an American teacher professional development program on student achievement

Recently, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) produced a systematic review on the effectiveness of Reading Apprenticeship, a professional development program that can be delivered online or in person. The program leads teachers to help their students develop reading comprehension and acquire interest, engagement, and confidence in reading. It also aims to enhance social-emotional learning, as well as academic achievement in math, reading, science and social sciences for middle and high school students. This review focuses on the effects on academic achievement.

Five out of the nine studies located from a literature search met the WWC inclusion criteria. The selected studies were randomized control trials involving a total of 22,176 American students in grade 7-9. The most assessed outcomes were reading comprehension (n=5) and literacy achievement (n=3); mathematics achievement was assessed by two studies; science, general academic achievement, social sciences, and vocabulary were assessed only by one study, and life sciences by another one.

The results from one study showed that Reading Apprenticeship had a statistically significant positive effect on science achievement (ES=+0.11) and on general academic achievement (ES=+0.07, p=0.02). In the other domains, the overall effects of the program were not statistically significant (p>0.05), but the program seemed promising for life sciences (ES=+0.16), social studies (ES=+0.15), literacy achievement (ES=+0.04), and reading comprehension (ES=+0.04), with no effects on vocabulary nor on mathematics.

 

Source (Open Access): What Works Clearinghouse, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. (2023, January). Reading Apprenticeship®. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/InterventionReport/727Read the rest