Self-regulated learning has been regarded as essential for effective learning. Research suggests that self-regulated learning is associated with academic performance, but different self-regulated learning strategies are not equally effective. Addressing the gap that occurred because few studies conducted in Asia were included in a previous meta-analysis, a meta-analysis published in Frontiers in Psychology has investigated what the most effective strategies for Chinese students were.
Using Chinese academic databases, Li and colleagues analyzed 264 independent samples that involved 23,497 participants from 59 studies. In order to be included in this meta-analysis, studies had to be conducted in real teaching situations; studies based on online learning environments were excluded. Furthermore, participants had to be elementary, junior high or secondary high school students in China. The effect sizes of self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement were analyzed. The result showed that:
- Among the self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy (ES= 0.70), self-evaluation (ES= 0.72), and task strategies (ES= 0.60) had relatively large effect sizes on academic achievements.
- On the other hand, the effect sizes of goal orientation (ES= 0.09) and attributions (ES= 0.27) were relatively small.
- The effect sizes of self-regulated learning on science (ES= 0.45) were larger than those on language (ES= 29).
The authors suggested that task strategies supported learning by reducing a task to its key parts and self-evaluation supported learners to compare the outcomes with their goals and standards, while self-efficacy facilitated learners to use their resources. The findings also indicated that students in China showed a different pattern in self-regulated learning.
Source (Open Access): Li, J., Ye, H., Tang, Y., Zhou, Z., & Hu, X. (2018). What are the effects of self-regulation phases and strategies for Chinese students? A meta-analysis of two decades research of the association between self-regulation and academic performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2434.