Informed by the self-determination theory, parental homework involvement has generally been measured by two dimensions: supportive parental homework involvement (SPI, e.g., autonomy support, provision of structure) and intrusive parental homework involvement (IPI, e.g., controlling, monitoring). A meta-analysis by Jiang and colleagues investigated the association between these involvement types and students’ mathematics achievement.
The meta-analysis identified 41 effect sizes from 20 empirical studies that reported Pearson’s correlation coefficient r and measuring tool of mathematics achievement. These studies were conducted from 2005 to 2022 and met the majority of the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist criteria. Overall, for math achievement, a very small but significant positive effect was found for SPI (r = +0.076) in relation to math achievement, while a negative association was found for IPI (r = -0.153). Moderator analysis results are presented below.
- Significant different effects were found among three sub-types of SPI, autonomy support showed the strongest link (r=+0.133), whereas content support (r=+0.049) and provision of structure (r=-0.009) displayed insignificant correlations.
- Regarding IPI, no significant differences in effects were found between controlling (r=-0.154) and interference (r=-0.149).
- Standardised math ability measurement (r=+0.036) showed a significantly weaker association with math achievement than non-standardised measures (r = +0.123) for SPI, but not for IPI.
- The negative association between IPI and math performance was greater for middle school students (r = -0.228) compared to primary school students (r=-0.093). No significant difference was found among grade levels for SPI.
- No significant difference was found among reporters (students versus parents) for either type of parental involvement.
The study highlighted that among reported sub-types of SPI, only autonomy support displayed a significant positive association with students’ math performance. Moreover, the negative association between IPI and math achievement was greater among higher grade-levels.
Source: Jiang, Q., Shi, L., Zheng, D., & Mao, W. (2023). Parental homework involvement and students’ mathematics achievement: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 14. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1218534