This Campbell Systematic Review examined the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension, involves the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present at school. In some extreme cases, the pupil is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion).
The review summarised 37 studies, reporting 38 interventions’ effect sizes. Most studies were from the US (n=33) and the UK (n=3). All of them were randomised controlled trials.
The evidence suggested that
- School-based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion during the first six months after the intervention (effect size =+0.30), but that this effect is not sustained.
- Some specific types of interventions showed more promising results than others. Of the nine different types of school-based interventions included in the review, four types (enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring and skills training for teachers) showed positive results in reducing exclusion.
However, based on the number of studies involved, the researchers suggest that results must be treated with caution.
Valdebenito, S., Eisner, M., Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M., Sutherland, A. (2018).School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion: a systematic review. Oslo, Norway: The Campbell Collaboration.