The flipped classroom approach, where students learn new content via video lectures outside class and use class time for interactive applications, is gaining popularity in higher education. A meta-analysis by Ni and colleagues, published in the International Journal of Educational Research, explored the impact of the flipped classroom approach on college students’ English learning outcomes.
The meta-analysis included 24 studies conducted from 2000 to 2020, yielding 31 effect sizes. These studies focused on the use of the flipped classroom approach in English language learning, wherein instructional videos and other technological tools were employed prior to class sessions to enhance high school students’ performance. All studies followed a pre-test, post-test control group design, comparing students who experienced the flipped classroom with those taught using traditional methods. The analysis revealed that flipped classrooms had a positive, moderate overall effect on learning outcomes (ES = +0.68).
Examining different types of flipped classroom designs, the following findings emerged:
- Interventions that included a review of pre-class preparation during class (ES = +0.92) had significantly higher effects than interventions without such reviews (ES = +0.38).
- A significant difference was observed among three types of constructive learning models: self-learning (k=3, ES = +0.22), cooperative learning (ES = +0.58), and a blend of the two (ES = +1.10).
- The studies utilizing a Learning Management System (LMS) showed a greater effect size (ES = +0.81) compared to those that did not (ES = 0.54), although no significant difference was found between the two.
- No significant difference was noted concerning different pre-class activities or whether a study integrated language learning theory.
- Regarding study regions, studies conducted in Mainland China (ES = +0.48) had significantly smaller effect sizes than those conducted in other parts of Asia (ES = +0.89), including the Middle East.
The findings of this meta-analysis offer valuable insights into the conditions under which flipped classrooms are more effective in improving students’ English language learning outcomes.
Note: k = no. of effect sizes.
Source: Ni, A., Cheung, A. C. K., & Shi, J. (2023). The impact of flipped classroom teaching on college English language learning: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Educational Research, 121, 102230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2023.102230