卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Programme Evaluation

The Medium-Term Effects of Tutoring

Cabezas and colleagues recently concluded eight years of data collection from a randomized controlled trial designed to explore the short-term and medium-term effects of a tutoring intervention in Chile.  The program was administered by the Minister of Education and was directed toward fourth grade students from low socioeconomic backgrounds attending low-performing schools.  Students in the treatment group received 15 weekly 90-minute tutoring sessions with a focus on shared reading.  The program demonstrated small to moderate short-term effects that are similar or slightly smaller than previous research on tutoring programs.  Overall reading and literature test scores showed a small effect (ES = + 0.06). Reading comprehension scores showed positive effect (ES = + 0.11). But use of language, texts production, and attitude towards reading did not show significant effects. The medium-term effects, which extend through the end of high school, are the focus of the study.  The treatment shows a beneficial...

21 01 2022
Digital games for improving student motivation in mathematics

The Journal of Computer Assisted Learning has recently published a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of digital games for the enhancement of K-12 student motivation in mathematics. To be included in the review, studies had to use randomized or quasi-experimental designs and evaluated interventions involving the use of digital games in mathematics in school contexts. A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Of them 10 studies took place in the United States and 5 in European countries. The studies used different measures of student motivation, most of them were based on the expectancy-value theory. This theory postulates that student behavior is determined by expectancy – students are more likely to achieve an outcome when they believe in their success – and value – how much students value the outcome to be achieved. Results of analysis were showed below. Overall, a significant positive effect of digital games on...

07 01 2022
Pre-K math instruction in different settings

09 A recent analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of a pre-K math intervention by McCormick and colleagues provides insight on the differences between public school pre-K instruction compared to pre-K in community-based organizations. The study investigates the differences in instruction between public school settings and community-based organizations as well as the effects of a math intervention called Making Pre-K Count (MPC), which includes the implementation of a 2-year math curriculum along with training and coaching for teachers. The study was conducted in New York City and consisted of 35 sites (24 public schools and 11 community-based organizations) assigned to the treatment and 34 sites (23 public schools and 11 community-based organizations) assigned to the control group.  In total, there 1389 students from 173 classrooms enrolled in the study. The differences between two settings: Lead teachers in public school settings are significantly more likely to have a master’s degree (96.6% of...

07 01 2022
The effects of a school-based vision program on academic achievement

Sometimes the best method to support student learning falls outside of the classroom, or beyond a teacher’s actions. A recent study by Neitzel and colleagues highlighted the effect of the Vision for Baltimore (V4B) program on student academic achievement from 2016-2019. V4B is a school-based vision program in which students in grades preK-8 were provided with free vision screening, with eye examinations and eyeglasses (as needed) for those who failed the screenings. These activities were facilitated by a Vision to Learn mobile eye clinic with free replacements available to students who lost or broke their original pair. Neitzel and colleagues used a cluster randomized clinical trial approach including 127 schools enrolled and randomized into the study. Schools were randomized into 1 of 3 study cohorts using block randomization, with each cohort receiving the V4B intervention during different program years. Cohort 1 (intervention) was compared with cohorts 2 and 3 (control)...

17 12 2021
What works for K-6 students at risk for failure in math and reading

The Campbell Collaboration has recently published a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for K-6 students at risk for failure in mathematics and reading. To be included in the review, studies had to use randomized or quasi-experimental designs and evaluate interventions conducted during the regular school day. A total of 205 studies were included in the review. Of these, 93% were randomized experiments and 86% took place in the United States. The included studies were placed in the following categories based on the intervention characteristics: coaching of personnel; computer-assisted instruction; incentives; peer-assisted instruction; progress monitoring; small-group instruction.  Below are the key findings: Significant positive effect was found for outcomes measured immediately after the intervention (ES = +0.30) as well as for follow-up outcomes (up to 2 years; ES = +0.27). Peer-assisted instruction and small-group instruction by an adult showed the largest effect sizes (ES between +0.35 and +0.45). Regarding...

17 12 2021
Long-term effects of early childhood educational intervention

The Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) is an early childhood education (ECE) intervention targeting low-income children’s school readiness. It is a cluster-randomized controlled trial that included four key components: professional development sessions for teachers on reducing behavioral problems and supporting self-regulated learning behaviors, mental health consultants’ regular visits to coach teachers, stress-reduction workshops for teachers, direct services to families with children with special learning needs. Watts and colleagues evaluated the effects of the CSRP on school choice over 10 years after the intervention ended. Data were collected from 442 students who participated in the program at ages 3, 4 or 5 in 2004 – 2005 or 2005 – 2006. The students were attending high school at different grade levels during the 2016 – 2017 academic year (grade 9: 26%; grade 10: 43%; grade 11: 30%; grade 12: 1%). To estimate the program’s impact, the researchers regressed each outcome variable relating...

03 12 2021
How to sustain Reading Corps intervention benefits?

Reading Corps is a Tier-2 tutoring program for K-3 students. Its intervention benefits are established by empirical evidence and rigorous evaluation methods, but little is known about how to sustain these benefits in the long run. A recent publication in Journal of School Psychology adopted a cluster randomized controlled trial to explore intervention maintenance. Researchers recruited students from kindergarten (n = 177), second grade (n = 149), and third grade ( n = 204 ) who successfully completed and exited Reading Corps in the previous fall semester. Through random assignment of schools, students assigned to the treatment group received weekly 5-minute oral practice sessions during the spring semester and students in the control group received no additional on-going monitoring or practice sessions. The 5-minute practice session was composed of a 1-minute grade-level progress monitoring probe and performance comparison to their previous literacy performance. The literacy outcome was measured by three...

03 12 2021
The secret sauce of effective interventions: Ongoing teacher coaching

Flashcards and quizzes are widely used pedagogical practices among educators. Typically, such interventions only involve teacher pre-treatment training but not on-going coaching. A recent publication in Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness explored a popular flashcard intervention called SAFMEDS (Say-All-Fast-Minute-Every-Day-Shuffled). This research aims to examine the effectiveness of implementation support for SAFMEDS. Researchers conducted this half-year experiment in North Wales’ primary schools in the United Kingdom. They adopted a school-level cluster randomization-controlled trial, where treatment schools (n = 33) received on-going support from researchers and control schools (n = 31) only received necessary technical assistance. The on-going support was composed of three one-hour school visits and email communications between researchers and teachers. Researchers observed the process and gave individualized feedback to each teacher. The outcome of interest was children’s arithmetical fluency measured by Mathematics Fluency and Calculation Tests (MFaCTs). The results provide evidence for small but positive effects of implementation...

19 11 2021
Scaling Up Early Childhood Interventions

A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted by Bleses and colleagues expanded a previously tested intervention called “We Learn Together.”  This program is designed to target language and math skills in toddlers between the ages of 18-35 months.  It emphasizes high-quality conversation, strategies for learning new words, and scaffolded learning.  Teachers tasked with implementing this intervention were provided with a sequence of instruction spanning 20 weeks but were also granted a high degree of autonomy in developing activities and a curriculum that would promote the desired learning strategies. The present study included 2,170 children at 255 childcare centers in Denmark that were separated into a treatment group and a control group, with children in both groups completing a pretest prior to the intervention and a posttest approximately 7 months after the start of the intervention.  A comparison of the groups demonstrated Significant effects for the treatment group in receptive vocabulary (ES...

05 11 2021