卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Secondary School Education

New review of evidence on parental engagement

A review of evidence published by the Education Endowment Foundation in the UK shows how parental engagement can have a positive effect on a child’s academic achievement – regardless of age or socioeconomic status. The review, conducted by the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter and supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), concludes that parental engagement in children’s learning is associated with improved academic outcomes, and that the association is stronger when parental engagement is defined as parents’ expectations for their children’s academic achievement. All studies controlled for parents’ education and/or family socioeconomic status. The review highlights areas of promise for how schools and early education settings can support parents in a way that improves their children’s learning. Examples include family literacy interventions to help boost younger children’s learning, and summer reading programs that improve school-aged children’s learning, particularly among families from more disadvantaged backgrounds. An overarching recommendation is the...

06 11 2019
Improving attendance by improving school conditions

The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a student missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that students are not getting the support they need. The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and student social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance. The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.   Source (Open Access) : Chang, H.N., Osher, D., Schanfield, M., Sundius, J. & Bauer, L. (2019). Using Chronic...

06 11 2019
What are the best self-regulated learning strategies for Chinese students?

Self-regulated learning has been regarded as essential for effective learning. Research suggests that self-regulated learning is associated with academic performance, but different self-regulated learning strategies are not equally effective. Addressing the gap that occurred because few studies conducted in Asia were included in a previous meta-analysis, a meta-analysis published in Frontiers in Psychology has investigated what the most effective strategies for Chinese students were. Using Chinese academic databases, Li and colleagues analyzed 264 independent samples that involved 23,497 participants from 59 studies. In order to be included in this meta-analysis, studies had to be conducted in real teaching situations; studies based on online learning environments were excluded. Furthermore, participants had to be elementary, junior high or secondary high school students in China. The effect sizes of self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement were analyzed. The result showed that:  Among the self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy (ES= 0.70), self-evaluation (ES= 0.72), and task strategies (ES= 0.60)...

23 10 2019
A little help from your friends

An article in the British Journal of Psychology describes research into whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socioeconomically vulnerable young people. The authors conclude that such friendships facilitate resilience, and that at least one close friendship helps adolescents craft meaning and strength amid substantial adversity. A total of 409 participants aged 11 to 19 were recruited through three comprehensive secondary schools and two colleges in Yorkshire with deprived surrounding areas (n=394), and through an online mailing list for peer supporters (n=15). They completed self-reported measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed: There was a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalizing coping. There were gender differences. Perceived friendship quality...

08 10 2019
Does happiness make you rich?

An article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) has found that happy people tend to earn more. The authors used data from a large representative panel in the U.S., and looked at earnings approximately ten years after well-being was measured. They found that Adolescents and young adults who reported higher life satisfaction grew up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. The positive emotions and the experience of feeling happy at 16 and age 18, as well as life satisfaction at age 22 also predicted later earnings at age 29. This conclusion takes into account the possibility that people may imagine their future high socioeconomic status and that this might have a positive impact on their current well-being. Other factors, such as education, intelligence, physical health, and height were also taken into account in the analysis.   Source (Open...

08 10 2019
What makes children stressed?

A research report from the Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre in the UK looks at family “stressors” and the impact on children’s outcomes. The authors look at whether particular life events are especially detrimental, whether they have an impact across different outcomes (educational, social, etc.), and whether the effects of early childhood events persist into adolescence. They also look at the association between family factors and outcomes. The findings of the report are broad, especially as different family factors can be associated with different types of outcomes. Key findings include that Extreme stressful events, such as homelessness, victimization, or abuse, can have long-term effects on children’s outcomes. Some stressful events have an impact on children’s emotional and social well-being but not their educational outcomes, and so their negative impacts may therefore be harder to pick up. The authors point out that in order to target interventions, it is important to understand which...

08 10 2019
Research on writing approaches for students in grades 2 to 12

This paper, written by Robert Slavin and colleagues from Johns Hopkins University, the University of Liege, and the Institute for Effective Education, reviews research on the outcomes of writing program for students in grades 2 to 12. Studies had to meet rigorous standards of research including use of randomized or well-matched control groups; measures independent of the program developers, researchers, and teachers; and adequate sample size and duration. Fourteen studies of 12 programs met the criteria and programs were divided into three categories: writing process models, cooperative learning writing programs, and programs integrating reading and writing. The findings were: Student achievement effects on writing were positive in all categories, with an effect size of +0.18 across all 14 studies. Similar outcomes were found for writing programs that focused on the writing process (ES =+0.17), those using cooperative learning (ES=+0.16), and those focusing on interactions between reading and writing (ES =+0.19)...

24 09 2019
Reassessing concerns about school may help improve academic achievement

A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences looks at what impact an intervention designed to help students with concerns about starting middle school has on their academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. Geoffrey D. Borman and colleagues conducted the study with 1,304 sixth graders at 11 middle schools in a U.S. Midwestern public school district. Within each of the 11 schools, students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention group was given reflective writing exercises, two months apart, which were designed to help students reassess any concerns and worries they might have about belonging in school. The control condition exercises asked students to write about neutral middle school experiences that were not related to school belonging. The researchers collected pre- and post-intervention survey data on students' reported social and emotional well-being, and official school records of student attendance, disciplinary records, and grades. The results of the...

24 09 2019
Family and Progress in Mathematics

Using a large sample from a longitudinal national Chinese survey, an article recently published in Learning and Instruction investigated how socioeconomic status (SES) and the academic expectation of the primary caregivers predicted students’ attainment in mathematics. The study used data from China Family Panel Studies, a longitudinal survey launched in 2010 and conducted every two years in 162 counties in China. In total, 1,407 adolescents were examined with data collected in 2010, 2012, and 2014, years in which the cohort grew from aged 10-15 to aged 14-19. In these years, students took three mathematics tests, the results of which were analyzed with their SES at the baseline and their primary caregivers’ academic expectations. It was found that: Both SES and primary caregivers’ academic expectation exerted positive effects on the mathematics attainment of the students in the study. Higher academic expectation from primary caregivers at ages 10-15 supported students to make...

24 09 2019