卓越實證概述 Best Evidence in Brief

Secondary School Education

Do private schools give students an educational advantage? A study from England

Researchers at the Institute of Education at University College London have conducted a study that looks at whether there are any educational advantages to attending private schools in the upper secondary years (Grades 11 and 12). Published in the Oxford Review of Education, the study used data from the Centre for Longitudinal Studies’ Next Steps cohort study and linked this to national student achievement information between 2005 and 2009. The researchers followed a sample of 5,852 students who attended a private or state school while doing their A levels (high-stakes exams taken at the end of Grade 12, and important for university admission). The findings were: The profiles of the two groups of students were very different – students arrived in private school sixth forms with significantly higher prior attainment in GCSEs (exams taken at the end of 10thgrade), and from households that had twice the income of families whose children attended state...

15 01 2020
The reciprocal effects of homework self-concept, interest and effort on math achievement

Math achievement has been thought to be interrelated with self-concept, interest and effort. In a recent longitudinal study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology, researchers examined how they influence each other over time using a sample of Grade 8 students in China.  702 students in Grade 8 from 14 classes in two public schools in East and South China completed an assessment of their math achievement, homework self-concept, interest, and effort at six weeks after the start of the school year and at the end of the school year. The analysis showed that:  Reciprocal effects were found between math self-concept and achievement, effort and achievement, as well as interest and effort.  In particular, the authors found that higher homework interest led to a higher subsequent effort, and higher prior effort could promote higher homework interest.  Moreover, self-concept had no significant effect on subsequent interest, but prior interest led to higher self-concept, possibly reflecting...

18 12 2019
Examining the evidence on Learning Accounts

Social Programs That Work has released a new evidence summary on Learning Accounts, a demonstration program in New Brunswick, Canada that provided up to approximately $8,400 in conditional financial aid for post-secondary education to low-income 10th grade students. The students had to meet certain benchmarks (i.e., completion of 10th, 11th, and 12th grade) to receive the funding. The program was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 1,145 low-income 10th graders in 30 high schools in New Brunswick, Canada. Within each school, the low-income students were randomly assigned to a group that was offered participation in the Learning Accounts program, or to a control group that received usual school services. Survey data was used to measure high school graduation rates, and administrative data was used to examine later graduation from college. According to the evidence report, over the 10 years following random assignment, the program produced a 6.5 percentage...

18 12 2019
Does enhancing teacher expectation benefit students?

Teachers’ expectations are believed to affect students, but teacher expectation intervention studies that compare an intervention group to a control group are rare. A recent study published in Learning and Individual Differences investigated the effects of an intervention in China that enhanced teachers’ behaviour of conveying high expectations to students. The study randomly selected two schools in the urban area of a city in south China. Four Grade 8 English teachers in each school were randomly chosen and evenly allocated to either the intervention or control group. While the control group teachers did not receive training, the intervention group teachers were provided with training workshops focusing on three strands of high expectation behaviour, namely, giving students challenging tasks, providing affirmation or suggestions to students about their performance, and enhancing how teachers impart personal regard to students.  Teachers were asked to estimate the final exam score they believed each student would achieve for...

04 12 2019
The effect of screen time on academic performance

A meta-analysis examining the evidence between overall screen time, specific screen-based activities, and academic achievement found that overall screen time is not related to children’s and teens’ academic achievement, yet the type of screen time is. Mireia Adelantado-Renau and colleagues in Spain found that TV and video game time greater than two hours a day was associated with poorer academic achievement, while internet and mobile phone time was not. In addition, the negative effects on academics were larger for teens than for children. The meta-analysis included 58 studies from 23 countries that met its inclusion criteria, encompassing the academic achievement of 106,000 4-18 year olds (assessed by school grades, standardized tests, and academic failure). Subgroup analysis was conducted between children and teens. The findings were: In children (4-12 years old), the length of TV watching negatively affected performance in language (ES= -0.20) and math (ES= -0.36). in teens (12-18 years old), longer TV...

04 12 2019
Staying on track – how ability grouping determines future earnings

When children start school, they are often divided into ability groups, and by high school this trend is formalized further, as students are directed onto different tracks in the U.S.. In theory, students are placed on tracks in order to maximize their achievement by grouping them based on ability or college orientation. Researchers have previously found that these tracks offer uneven opportunities for further achievement and success in college. Now, a study in Urban Education has shown how this effect persists into adulthood. The study examined the link between tracking in secondary school and salary income for young adults and whether these effects vary by the individual’s gender and race. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, the researchers found that educational tracking is associated with future income, independent of the quantity of education that individuals receive. The researchers suggest that it is important to inform educators, as well as parents and youth,...

20 11 2019
Evidence on the long-term effects of home visiting programs

Children from low-income families are more likely than those from higher-income families to have poor social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes. One approach that has helped parents and their young children is home visiting, which provides information, resources, and support to expectant parents and families with young children. This MDRC brief summarizes prior evidence on the effects of four evidence-based models of home visiting using information from seven studies of families with children ages 5 to 21. Specifically, the brief looks at what the effects of home visiting are for families as children get older, and how monetary benefits of home visiting compare with their costs. The key findings of the briefing report include: Evidence-based home visiting has improved outcomes for parents and children across a wide range of child ages, outcome areas, and national models Evidence-based home visiting appears to be cost-effective in the long term The largest benefits from...

20 11 2019
Using technology to facilitate personalized learning in China

An article recently published in Frontiers in Psychology reported how technology is used to facilitate personalized learning in China. Xiaofeng You and colleagues examined the Chinese Learning Diagnosis System (CLDS) developed by a Chinese educational evaluation company designed for providing timely feedback to students and teachers.  The CLDS analyzes students’ assignments for their mastery of various attributes and generates feedback to students and teachers. Consequently, students can identify their strengths and weakness and teachers can modify their instruction using the information. To examine the CLDS’s effectiveness, the achievements, self-efficacy, and academic motivation of 547 high school students enrolled in an experimental school in 2012 were compared to 396 high school students in a school where CLDS was not used. Achievement in the pretest was measured by high school entrance examination scores, and achievement in the posttest 3 years later was measured by the college entrance examination scores; both are high stakes tests...

06 11 2019
Future Planning and Achievement among Chinese students

Several studies have indicated the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how students plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationships between Chinese junior high school students’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains. This study conducted three assessments six months apart from Spring 2014 to Spring 2015 in Shandong Province in eastern China. Seven hundred and seventy-five students from sixth to eighth grades participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured students’ future explorations, commitments, and their affects concerning future education and occupation. Data of their academic achievement were collected from school records of their scores in Chinese, English, and mathematics. The relationships were analyzed with data collected at different times. The analysis showed that: There were reciprocal relations between academic achievement and Chinese...

06 11 2019